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Monday, 27 December 2021 03:16

A Convenient Approach to Write Research Papers

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Writing research papers is part of the academic process. The process entails sourcing for materials and developing an assignment that match to the criteria set by examiners. It however remains a major challenge to majority of the learners who lack the resources and ability to source for materials or generate the required content. All is not lost however for such persons can easily engage professional writers for the purpose. These are dedicated service providers who have in place the relevant resources to research and write the papers as required.  The process not only gives convenience but works to ensure that the student gets content that remains useful for future references.

 The service provider offers with intensive research services that help collect information for the research papers. The research process includes use of the materials recommended for learning by educational agencies in every region. It also conforms to the institutional standards set by examiners for the specific paper. To have this done a team of professional researchers undertake the task ad in such way ensure there is total compliance. For this reason there is an assurance that the content generated comes with capacity to having compelling information for better scores and performance after marking. Writing starts right from the early stages of learning.

Right from the time one joins school at a young and tender age, one is taught to write. The skills develop through the different stages of learning.  However, this is not enough to qualify one to write an academic paper. There are styles and formats that need to be followed for each specific paper. This means that the writer must have relevant skills to achieve this responsibility. The service provider in this considerations works with professionals to develop the required research papers. . The professionals who undertake the task receive regular training on the practices and modalities to follow different formats and styles hence capacity to write any form of a paper.

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Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:57

Jamie Oliver’s Organization Case Study Analysis

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Jamie Oliver’s Organization Case Study Analysis

Task 1:

Recruitment, selection and retention:

Jamie Oliver’s organization has used strategic recruitment, selection and retention in its practices. this has ensured that the organization has maintained high value employees. The following is an analysis of the strategies that Jamie uses in the recruitment, selection and retention process, and an analysis of other strategies that Jamie should use in his organization.



Ronald R. Sims (2010) defines recruitment as a process that involves generating a large number of individuals who are qualified for a job. (Ronald R. Sims, 2010, pp 160). Recruitment is also defined as the process of discovering potential candidates for a job. The recruitment process starts with a want, according to the case study it is evident that Jamie wanted young inexperienced and unskilled individuals just like him who would take up training and employment in various restaurants.

The recruitment process has two main goals, the first goal is to attract qualified applicants and the second goal is to encourage individuals who are unqualified to select themselves out. This seems to be a strategy the Jamie used; he only encouraged the young inexperienced and unskilled individuals to apply. The selection process also involved various stages to ensure that those who did were unqualified would quit.

Conventional methods require that human resource manager take up a decision to recruit, they decide how many employees are needed, when they are needed and decide on the special qualifications. Jamie seems to have followed this procedure, he named his organization fifteen given that, he needed 15 trainees, he also specified the special qualifications for the individuals he selected and this was the unskilled yet highly motivated individuals who would take up the challenge to undergo training and take up three tests.

There are various strategic recruitment processes that organization uses; these include full time or part time recruitment, seasonal employment and temporary workers. Jamie seems to e using the temporary worker strategy, which involves trying before he employs the applicants. This is evident where recruited applicants have to undergo various stages and tests before they can qualify.

Jamie recruitment process did not follow conventional methods, which are based on skills and knowledge; you recruited individuals who were inexperienced and unqualified. In my own view, I would not use Jamie’s method, as indicated in the case study, Jamie faced various challenges including disruptions and demotivating given that they were inexperienced. Jamie however did not give up and continued on to the selection process, which involved various stages to select applicants.


The selection process is defined as a process that involves making a decision on whether to hire or not to hire; it is also defined as the process in which an organization chooses a qualified individual to fill up a position. The selection process follows various criteria, which include formal education, experience, past performance, physical characteristics and personal characteristics.

Selection involves testing recruited individuals, Jamie selected 60 applicants in his first process, and he also applied three tests, which involves determining whether the individuals were well equipped to fill up this position.

There are various tests that are applied in the selection process; these tests include personality tests, cognitive ability test, work ability testing and physical ability test. In the first stage, Jamie seems to apply the personality tests, these tests are applied to determine emotional and behavior pattern and thought. Jamie applied this test, which is aimed at determining whether an individual is enthusiastic and passionate about food. This test is recorded enabling him to make proper decisions about the individual.

The second test involves a work ability testing, these test are applied to determine an element of a position. The applicant’s ability on the job is determined through this test, which is applied by Jamie. This test involves determining whether applicants are able to express themselves through their sensory experiences. This test involves recruits being given food they had never eaten before and asked to express themselves about the food. Through this selection stage, Jamie was able to reduce his recruits y half and only 30 remained.

The third stage-involves recruits being taught to cook a certain dish, all the stages were explained to them and they were asked to do it themselves. This is a cognitive ability test stragegy, which was aimed at determining whether the individuals were capable of solving problems and learning from experience. It is also in some was a work ability test.

In such a position, I would have applied other tests, which a crucial to successful selection process, these test would have included integrity tests, which determines whether an individual would engage in illegal activities, this is evident from the case study where applicants failed to attend classes while others were involved in violent behavior. Drug testing would also be appropriate in this case and finally medical tests which would determine the health of an individual given that they will handling food in a restaurant.


Jamie uses unique retention strategies in his organization, he uses the development and career opportunity strategy, this motivates the young selected applicants for their chance to advance in their career as chefs, and he provides them with the necessary skills and knowledge and finds them jobs in high-ranking restaurants. This is how he maintains his selected applicants at his disposal. (Suzanne Dibble, 2013, pp 123). I would also use such a retention strategy combining them with other strategies such as financial strategies such as bonuses that help in retaining employees in the organization.







Task 2:

Leadership, motivation and management strategies:

Leadership style and strategies:

Edwin Locke (2013) states that leadership is distinguish from management in that a leader has a vision, purpose, mission and goal. On the other hand, management only involves implementing the vision.  (Edwin Locke, 2013, pp 3). From the case study, Jamie has a vision, mission and goal. His vision was to motivate young individuals to become chefs although they were unqualified and without skills. Jamie also implemented his vision by expanding his organization; this means that Jamie is both a good leader and a manager.

Leadership according to Sadler P. (2012) is an act of influencing tasks in order to achieve certain set goals. He states that leadership can be broken down to four main parts namely; leadership as an influencing process, leadership as a process involving interaction between followers and the leader, leadership is influenced by the situation where leadership takes place and that leadership has an outcome in achieving a set goal.

The case study indicates that Jamie influences his recruits by motivating them and encouraging them to learn and become skilled chefs. He also interacts with them and his leadership has a goal, which has been achieved over the years. More importantly, his leadership style is influenced by the situation and that is at hand.

There are various leadership styles and there is evidence to show that Jamie’s leadership style is influenced by these situations. Kippenberger (2011) states that a transformation leader is a leader who is charismatic and influences his followers in achieving a goal, from the case study, Jamie is a charismatic leader who influences recruits to become chefs and achieve their career goals. Jamie also uses transactional leadership style, Kippenberger (2011) also states that a transactional leader use rewards to punish or deter behavior; it is evident that Jamie applies punishment by suspending recruits who do not follow rules and exhibit deviant behavior.

Jamie can also be considered an autocratic leader, he sets the rules and gives orders on what should be done and how it should be done, his recruits are expected to follow his directions or else be punished. this is evident where Jamie does not in any way consult with his recruits when making decision, he also expects them to pass the tests that he gives them or else be opted out of the selection process. Bonnici (2014)

Jamie did not know his trainees, he had to be more autocratic, as discussed above, an autocratic leader sets the rules and gives orders on what to be done. Jamie’s autocratic leadership style is evident where he decides on what test to apply and who gets to join the team. After knowing his trainees, he is more relaxed and puts greater autonomy to trainees, in this situation, he applies situational leadership style whereby trainees are allowed to make their own decision and run activities on their own.

In order to manage the trainees more effectively, Jamie should also apply the bureaucratic leadership style, this style entails coming up with policies and procedures that will e used in decision making. Trainees would then be guided by these procedures and policies. When the trainees find themselves in situations that are not covered by the policies and procedure, then this leadership style proposes that they should consult with the leader above; in this case, they will consult Jamie. This leadership is more appropriate in actions that require routine; therefore, this leadership style will fit well in Jamie’s case.


Task 3:

Teamwork theory:

Tuckman’s teamwork theory provides an explanation on how Jamie was able to achieve teamwork in his organization. Tuckman’s theory states that teamwork evolves through four stages, the first stage is forming, the second storming, the third is norming and the third is performing. The team that Jamie built passed all these stages, which are evident in the case study. (Michael West,  2012 )

The forming stage is evident in the case study where Jamie selects a team of 15 candidates to train, it is evident that team members avoided conflicts and there was minimal confrontation or conflict. The second stage, which is storming, is evident from the case study where team members disagree and offer different opinions, it is evident that there was a conflict that merged among the team’s members and this can be viewed as the second stage of teamwork building. (Michael West,  2012 )

The third stage is norming, which is characterized by assignment of roles, this occurs when storming completes and the group is ready to work together and perform their roles. This is evident from the case study where conflicts end and the candidates are ready to perform their duties. The final stage, which is performing, is evident in the case study where Jamie succeeds in training his candidates and they can now work together as a team. (Michael West,  2012 )


Belbin's team role identifies how Jamie could use this model with his trainees to improve team work. According to this model, indivudals can be classified into 3 borad categories which include action oriented roles, people orietnetd roles and thought oriented roles.
Action oriented roles includes the shapers, these are individuals who other to improve, these individuals stimulate other to change and solve problems. A weakness of these individuals is that they may be argumentative and therefore may offend others. The other role is the completer; these are individuals who ensure that tasks are completed thoroughly. The weakness in these individuals is that they may unnecessary worry about the completion of tasks. The other role is the implementers; who get tasks done. The weakness with these individuals is that they might resist change because they are inflexible.

People oriented roles include the coordinator and these are individuals who guide the team members, their weakness is that they might be manipulative. The other role is the team worker, these are individuals who get work done by ensuring that all team members are working effectively, and their weakness is that they might be indecisive. The other is the resource investigator, these are curious and investigative indivudals, they explore the available options and their weakness is that they may lose enthusiasm quickly.

Thought oriented roles include the plant role, which are individuals who are creative and innovative, their weakness they are poor communicators. The other role is the monitor or evaluator, these are individuals who are thinkers and offer strategic approaches to tasks, their weakness are that they do not motivate others. The other role is the specialist, these are individuals who have specialized knowledge and their weakness is that they may limit their contribution to the team.

Jamie should use this model by investigating each trainee and determining the roles that they best fit in the team, in this way he can determine which role is missing from the team. After determining which role is missing, he can then select a team member to assume that role or bring in a new team member to fit the role. By assessing the various weaknesses of each team member, Jamie will also initiate actions that would improve the performance of these team members.














Task 4:

Performance evaluation:

Herman (2010) defined performance evaluation as the continuous process that involves identifying, measuring and evaluating the performance of employees and then aligning them to the organization goals. There is evidence from the case study that Jamie indentifies and measures the performance of his trainees, from the case study these form of evaluation starts during the recruitment and selection process where the trainees are given three tests which determines their performance. There is also evidence that the selected trainees are tested regularly and have an option of taking tests when they fail. (Herman, 2010)

Performance evaluation is important in that it ensures that employees are properly utilized in an organization, its main purpose is to measure performance against the expected performance, it also helps identify training needs and professional development, and it helps in identifying the skills and abilities of employees for the purpose of promotion and reward. Jamie will benefit from performance evaluation in that it ensures control of work being done, enhances the motivation and productivity of employees. Performance evaluation also helps employees to identify the objectives and goals of the organization, through performance evaluation, employees’ needs to be recognized are met whereby high performing individuals are rewarded, it also helps in identifying areas of improvement in the work process and also areas that require employee skills and knowledge development. (Herman, 2010)


The expectancy theory helps in analyzing the evaluation process evident in the case study, this theory states that individuals adjust behavior based on anticipated satisfaction. It is evident that the trainees adjust their performance due to the anticipated employment opportunity they will get when they successfully complete their training. Jamie will benefit from evaluation based on this theory, it is evident that through evaluation and rewarding performance will motivate his trainees to meet objectives and therefore improve the organization efficiency. (Herman, 2010)

The goal setting states that when organization goals are set, they play an important role in motivating employees to perform better. The case study indicates that Jamie set goals that would ensure that his trainees achieve the desired outcome; He sets goals that ensure that the unskilled and inexperienced recruits will end up being some of the best chefs in London. This is an indication that Jamie has been successful in setting achievable goals, motivating his recruits and achieving objectives.  (Herman, 2010)

Jamie should also come up with new way to monitor his trainees such as walking around them as they work, providing regular supervision every week , observing each trainee performance on a regular basis, organizing group meetings aimed at collecting their views and briefing them. Jamie will benefit from performance evaluation in that it ensures control of work, enhances the motivation and productivity,  helps employees to identify the objectives and goals, employees’ needs to be recognized are met , it helps identify process improvement areas and employee skills needs. (Herman, 2010)






Aguinis Herman (2010). Performance Management. New Jersey: ABC books

Charles Hill  (2007). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. New York: Wiley and sons publishing

Charles A. Bonnici (2014). Creating a Successful Leadership Style: Principles of Personal Strategic. Oxford: Oxford university press.

David M. Bridgeland ( 2008). Business Modeling: A Practical Guide to Realizing Business. New York: Black well publishing

Edwin Locke (2013). The Essence of Leadership: The Four Keys to Leading Successfully. Oxford: Lexington books

Michael A. West( 2012). Effective Teamwork: Practical Lessons from Organizational. Boston: Boston university press.

Philip Sadler (2012). Leadership. Sterling: Kogan page publishing. Boston: Boston university press.

Ronald Sims (2010). Reforming Human Resource Management Agency. New Jersey: McGraw Hill.

Suzanne Dibble (2013). Keeping Your Valuable Employees: Retention Strategies for Your Organization. New York: Prentice hall

Tony Kippenberger (2011). Leadership Styles. New York: Wiley and sons publishing

Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:50

Multinational Companies

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Multinational Companies




Multinational Companies

Employees from different countries have different approaches to company norms and employment. This is as a result of the management culture and beliefs that different people hold. This calls for different leadership styles in different countries depending on people’s management culture. Multicultural education is essential for people holding management levels in multinational companies. It is not necessarily that a company appoints locals to fill the management positions but rather appoints experienced management team. Experience in this case means managers who are able to manage effectively in the country they are appointed. Different leadership styles and skills are required for employees from different countries. While some employees would require flexible working hours, others would wish for tight schedules.

The Middle East employees like struggling to make it in life. They engage in all sorts of jobs. While there is are laws containing bill of rights to protect employees by guaranteeing minimum wages and minimum working hours, the issues of working long hours are overlooked. This means that working overtime in Japan should not necessarily be compensated because the labor laws do not protect it. Middle East workers feel guilty when they are not working. It is argued that Japanese do not have patience with lazy people, people who break promises, and those who do not work to their best. Keeping promises should be ensured through working hard. According to them, poor service is regarded as an individual insult (Mohwald, 2002, p. 13-5).

The Asian workers differ from European workers who view work as a way of reaching a certain goal. For Asians, working is an end in itself and is thus considered as an existential existence. This implies reaching one goal should be a start of the next one. Achieving one goal through working will only mean more working to achieve the next and hence a chain of working hard to achieve more goals. Children are taught in their early ages that they should work hard because this is a virtue. They should therefore help with pleasure and enthusiasm. Asian employees are go-getting and find themselves naturally working extremely hard (Shinohara, 2009, p. 28-31). This way, they provide their clients and their employers with the unsurpassed service.

Some Middle East citizens are well educated with blue-collar employees from Asia matching with engineering graduates in European countries. This is ensured through both education and training once in the job industry. Further, training is essential and is done via apprenticeship-like systems. Trainees are encouraged to ‘learn and steal’ the taught skills from the masters. This is done to make the trainees as competent as the masters and ensure that the employees do their work perfectly. Employees should continuously train in different skills and make sure the understand the trained skills (Deresky, 2011). 

The recommended working hours for Asians are 46.5 hours a week. Initially, the employees were entitled to eight hours on weekdays and four working hours on Saturday. This has changed to off on Saturdays but most employees find themselves working on Saturdays. Additionally, many employees like working overtime with no extra compensation. Even with the promise of three-week holiday for many employees, many do not take their time off but rather continue working. Surveys prove that workers do not have much free time.

While the employees are entitled to paid vacation and holidays, they do not have people to take on their job positions because of the decreasing working age population in the country. It is also proven that with salaried men being used to self-sacrifice and hard work, they are guilty of taking time off when other employees are working. People are only comfortable and relaxed when they take time off for funerals, weddings, and other important events. Taking time off work would make one feel guilty and uncomfortable.


Deresky, H. (2011). International management: Managing across borders and cultures. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Möhwald, U, 2002, Changing attitudes towards gender equality in Japan and Germany, München, Iudicium.

Shinohara, C, 2008, Equal Employment Opportunity Policies and Attitudes Toward Gender-roles in Japan Since 1985, Minnesota, ProQuest.


Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:49

U.S. citizenship via a CR-1 Visa

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U.S. citizenship via a CR-1 Visa



Part I: U.S. Citizenship via a CR-1 Visa

            In principle, the conditional resident (CR) visa is applicable to US citizen who has been married to an alien for less than two years. The fact that it is conditional means that if the marriage goes beyond the first two years, the alien should apply for an IR1, which makes the alien a permanent resident. However, the process involves fees, which amount to $728. In essence, after the two years elapse the alien has to apply for an adjustment that costs $1,010. In addition, it is notable that the process could take weeks to process, which means increased visits to the embassy. Depending on the distance from the applicant’s residence and the embassy, the process could amount to anything between $1,000 to 1,500. Although this might seem to be expensive, it is worth because one would live with his or her loved one in close quarters. The majority of embassies take an average of up to six weeks to process the visa. Although it normally takes time, it is important to provide only facts in the application because any form of lies leads to severe punishments (US Visas, 2015).

Part II: Business Visa

For people involved in a business, they apply for B-1 visas, which do not authorize them to be involved in any gainful employment in the United States. However, the visitor is allowed to transact any form of legal business while in the country. The application fee for this visa is $160 although there are other charges, which are associated with travelling to visit the embassy for interviews. It is advisable to provide only accurate information even on trivial matters because it could lead to a jail sentence or life ban to visit the US. In effect, the information provided should always be based on the truth (US Visas, 2015).



US Visas. (2015). “US Department of State: Bureau of Consular Affairs." Visitor Visa. Retrieved 16 April 2015 from



International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures

Question 1

            Alliances are formed between two or more companies where they agree to share technology, human resource, and financial resources to improve their performance. However, alliances in sensitive areas pose serious challenges to the firms because of the mistrust. Notably, mistrust creates secrecy, which undermines the purpose of the alliance because the involved parties cannot share the important resources to increase profitability. Some Organizations believe that to share their technologies and other resources introduces competition in the business field, which would affect their market share. Although the benefits are numerous, the challenges such as cross-cultural differences, conflicting strategic objectives, goals, and disputes that arise from control and management systems have detrimental effects on alliances. In addition, the failure to collaborate effectively could lead to failure to realize the implementation of the alliance's goals. In highly sensitive areas, the leaders should agree on the resources that the organizations would share and the terms and conditions. In technologically intense business fields such as semiconductors, computers and pharmaceuticals, alliances become a new competition according to the terms and conditions that the initial firms agree to take. Such situations slow down the realization of the benefits of the alliances, which are to enter the global marketplace within a shorter time with fewer challenges.

Question 2

Governments in host countries impose regulations that multinational companies should follow to reduce conflicts. However, the regulations pose some challenges especially if they change regularly. Administrations control the deployment of economic resources by MNC managers hence limiting the autonomy of the MNC strategy. The first challenge affects the strategic freedom of the managers since they cannot implement their policies at will. The second is a challenge to the managerial autonomy as managers try to implement their strategies in their home nations. Host nations impose restrictions on product or market choice, national trade balance, and technology use. Managers also face the challenge to share their strategies with other stakeholders in the same business. In effect, they cannot have a managerial autonomy that leads to a competitive edge for the MNC. In some cases, managers are expected to decentralize decision-making processes, which affect the internal functions of the company. Subsequently, the managers of these organizations have to share their strategies with other firms, which lead to restrictions especially in terms of innovativeness and creativity. However, some leaders choose to develop strategic plans that make some competitive sense and agree with the host government on how to share the strategy (Deresky, 2010).

Question 3

In principle, global geographic structure affects large organizations that are not dominant in a particular region, country, or area. Such organizations create regional CEO who manages a given region as opposed to responding to global leadership. The advantages of the structure include ensuring that each geographical region is semi-autonomous with goals and objectives that do not respond to the entire world. In this manner, a certain region can have the authority to produce a particular set of products especially if they are located close to the raw materials. Alternatively, the region can use the accessibility to cheap labor to perform a mass production of goods that would be sold across the world. Additionally, each group shares responsibility for foreign operations because they have to understand how business is conducted in a given region. At the same time, the regional leadership improves it decision-making processes because it does not have to rely on feedbacks from the headquarters to enact the necessary changes (Deresky, 2010).

On the contrary, the system has disadvantages as regional CEO could opt to champion their unique needs and forget about those of the mother firm. Moreover, it could lead to duplication of work since each region manages its affairs independently. Innately, MNCs want a situation whereby they share experiences from their locations, but the strategy limits the opportunity because each CEO focuses to meet his or her objectives. Subsequently, it affects organizational performance and profitability; thus, limiting sustainability (Deresky, 2010).

Question 4

The role of information systems plays an integral role in the monitoring systems of MNCs. Notably; some organizations could choose information systems, which are incompatible with those of the other subsidiaries, as a result, the management should consider systems that are applicable across the multinationals to improve communication between the different regions of operation. Importantly, the exchange of data between different regions is critical to running an MNC; therefore, the firm should have systems that can process data from different locations even when they are not suing the same software. In this regard, the MNC can adopt different communication channels to suit varying needs that arise in the management of systems. The managers should be responsible for exchanging any necessary information in real time. On the same note, staffing policies differ from one country to the next; therefore, the management of the MNC should ensure that the policies are acceptable in the host country to reduce the chances of legal suits. Furthermore, the firm should ascertain that it expatriates are compensated as per the laws of the host nation (Deresky, 2010).



Deresky, H. (2010). International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures: Text and Cases. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Education.

Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:27

The Presentation of Self" To Contemporary Society

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The Presentation of Self" To Contemporary Society

In his book ‘The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life,’ Erving Goffman explores individuals’ interpersonal interaction in relation to how they perform so as to depict or portray a desirable self image. In his analysis, Goffman uses the imagery of theatre to analyze the interaction of human beings within the society they exist. Generally, Goffman’s analysis grounds on the relationship between life and performance (acting). Arguably, that is why he uses the theatre performance symbolically to signify real life human interaction within the society. As such, he uses theatre to exemplify the contrast that exist between front stage and back stage human behaviors. In the process of interaction, those in front stage or participants are referred as actors. While in front stage, the actor is always aware that s/he is being observed by the audience. As such, this makes the actor to perform observing some social conventions and in line with certain rules (Goffman, 1990)

The actor observes all these in order to create or project a specific self persona or image to his or her audience. Failure to comply with the aforementioned observations or guideline implies to losing face according to Goffman analysis. Of great importance to note here is that the actor’s behavior is always different in a private set up – back stage setting for that case where no performance is required.  As such, according to Goffman’s analysis, the performance is the self presentation. This is because, the performance subject individuals to form or develop new personalities of oneself with the perception that one has turned into an enhanced person. However, the emergence and advancement of technology has limited the physical social interaction between or among individuals in the society. This paper addresses the presentation of self (self presentation) within the contemporary society (Goffman, 1990).

Goffman outlines that while performing (Self presentation) individuals possess the give and the give off expressions.  The latter expressions results to impressions received by the audience that the actor never intended the audience to receive, while the former are impressions that the actor intended the audience to receive or rather, which s/he intended to produce or communicate. Apart from the impressions that individual give and give off while performing (self presentation), Goffman in his analysis also considered other form of imageries or metaphors for that case in respect to self presentation. One such imagery is the use of mask, which signifies a deception of face to face interaction. Through masking the individual performing (self presentation) is able to present and as well marginalize some aspects of one self. However, of great importance to note is that the individual in question does not become a different person by the virtue of masking – the worn mask and the disguised person are features of the same person (Goffman, 1990).

During his time, Goffman highlighted that telephone conversation was a way of marginalizing the way people interact socially and termed as ‘a departure from the norm.’ From Goffman point of view, technology would definitely disrupt the order of social interaction – face to face interaction. In fact, when referring to telephone conversation and terming it a marginalized way of social interaction, Goffman may have been implying that technology-mediated interaction is insufficient due to the absence of physical signals that are there in physical interaction. However, social interaction has evolved over decades with the advancement of modern technologies to such a point that physical interaction has been significantly limited (Goffman, 1990).

For instance, the emergence and advancement of computer-mediated communication has lead to the global acceptance of non-physical online social interaction. The global acceptance of online non-physical social interaction has resulted to questioning the applicability of Goffman’s interaction order within the context of online social interaction. According to Arundale (2010), Goffman’s interaction order is decades and decades old and hence outdated. In fact, according to Arundale (2010), Goffman’s interaction order should be amended to integrate technology and research progress. On the other hand, Miller (n.d) argued that electronic interaction was just but an ordinary extension or addition to what Goffman had already posited.

Computer mediated communication as received a global recognition over the past years. For instance, it possible for people to interact socially through exchanging ideas and feelings freely and with ease through the various social networks such as through Facebook, Skype, twitter, Whatsapp, and among other social network site. Of great importance to note is that through some of the available social networks people can share photos and video links and hence bringing in the presence of physical signals or cues as in conventional physical social interaction. Equally, technology advancement has resulted to the use of blogs as a tool of social communication. In fact, blogging has advanced to include features such as videos, photos, personal biography, bloggers social network profile links, friend lists, and as well to include web 2.0. The inclusion of all of these features plus the customizable backgrounds has enabled bloggers to offer a broad variety of identity pointers. Additionally, all these additional features allow bloggers introduce aspects of communication richness in their communication.

Despite the global recognition of online non physical social interaction, Jenkins (2010) argues that face to face social interaction still remains the real thing. However, Jenkins (2010) continues to acknowledge the progress of computer mediated communication and indicates that computer mediated communications presents an elaborate example of impression management. Equally, Jenkins continues to argue that the gap that existed between digital interaction and face to face social interaction has with time reduced owing to the communication richness that has been introduced in the modern computer mediated communication as a result of technology advancement.

As such, according to Jenkins (2010) analysis, Goffman’s interaction order theories are still applicable in the modern computer mediated communication. In fact, from Jenkins (2010) point of view, Goffman’s interaction order theories remain versatile and are of timelessness nature. Arguably, the physical interactions or for that case the offline interaction are the back stage or bases upon which online interaction occurs. As such, the aspects of giving off and giving that signify the conventional physical interaction can be incorporated to the modern computer mediated communication through the various means of adding communication richness to make it appear real. As such, the remaining part of this paper will describe the applicability of interaction order as outlined by Goffman in his work in respect to self presentation in the modern online world.

It has been aforementioned in this paper that online environment or settings for that case present individuals with a rare opportunity to present and to perform different personalities. The geographical distance between the audience and the performer (self presentation actor or person) makes it simple to cover up offline self aspects and adorn online aspects. From Goffman’s description or analysis for that case, this can be considered as a manifestation of splitting one’s self character during the interaction process. Note that in this case the self is divided in to the two – new and old one self.  Jenkins (2010) argues that the new identities of oneself re not developed or created online, but the division of oneself can be found as well in our day to day face to face interactions. For that purpose, the online one-self can be argued as a component of a broader identity – linking the one-self in some other offline contexts. In contrast, Arundale (2010) stipulates that the creation of new one-self is achieved online.

Arundale (2010) outlines that irrespective of how one-self is conceptualized in respect to self presentation, online identity facilitate or plays a major role in persona adoption. In fact, according to some researches, the term non virtual should be used to replace real world. The rationale behind this replacement of the term real world with the term virtual world is because “… Virtual identities created and maintained by users’ non-virtual identities, may be just as real to users as their non-virtual identities”. As such, individuals would not assume their online self identities as being far apart from reality. Baker (2009), in his work, coined an alternative point of view through his concept of blended identity. In this the offline oneself notifies the creation or the development of the new self. The online self subsequently re-notifies the offline oneself for additional interaction with those the person in question initially met online.

The aforementioned scenario can best be understood and explained in respect to Goffman’s face. Goffman explains that the individual in self presentation is “expected to keep face by maintaining the initial impression that they have made on an audience and live up to it” (Goffman, 1990 p.35). The face construction according to Goffman’s description can be likened to the action of putting on a mask. From the point of view of blended identity in respect to Goffman’s framework, it can be deduced that the self refers to the mere action of masking oneself. As such, the mask one chooses to literally put on in a given particular situation. The individual (actor) puts on or dons the mask whenever he or she interacts socially with other individuals online.  For that case, the actor leaves the mask on for the intentions of face in upcoming physical interactions. Of importance to note is that the audience is always unaware that a unlike self lies underneath for utilization in a dissimilar situation.

In online environment or setting, the avatar represents a form of mask. As such, the appearance of avatar in an online environment exhibits the interests or role of the user. The customization of avatars in online environment or settings has proved to be of significant importance in second life (SL) contexts than in other forms of virtual worlds. This is an indication that more value is placed in self presentation in second life. As such, users will have a preference for better looking avatars, that are fitter and those that are outstanding than they are in actual or real life. Note that this amounts to identity exploration and for that case a one sided edition or form of it.

In this respect, the online environment or setting for that case can be assumed as a stage in which the backstage is the offline life.  The particular actors in this stage invest in their ‘costume’ with the wish of provoking the preferred response from other second life (SL) inhabitants. As such, the avatars are subsequently of focus transformed social interaction. This observable fact implies that with the avatars advert, the users will definitely minimize and emphasis definite elements of self, such as behavior or appearance. This is possible in computer median communication (CMC) because the users have now become creators and editors in the modern global society. This implies that the users are in opposition to design and create their self representations. As such, they are in a position to choose what to depict within the foreground and what to hind within the background.

The fact that the blogger is in a position to maintain several blogs implies that he or she can create diverse persona to identify with each blog. As such, the self has been successfully broken down with each receiving a different set of information. Of great importance to note in these modern computer median communication (CMC) is that some blogs are anonymous and the blogger disseminates inappropriate or inapt subject matter away from the primary blog through a second blog. Note that in this case we have a primary online self, but depending on the needs a second personae maybe utilized. In order to avoid the output of the second personae compromising either the primary online self or the offline self and thus conveying loss of ‘face’ it is important to mask the identity. As such, the second life (SL) correspondent of the next blog is the substitute avatar, or ‘alt’ for that case. Note that these are usually the added avatars and are usually used for different functions to the primary avatar. 

Equally, the alternative avatars can be self-sufficient of the primary avatar in that they may be having a dissimilar appearance and even different friends. However, it is important to note that the users behind them remain the same. Owing to the fact that the alts or the alternatives are options for second life (SL) users, they may not have a primary avatar. As such, their different elements identity may be distributed among the various avatars of similar significance. However, this is quite unlikely basing on the fact that 98% of second life (SL) users were found to at least being in a position of identifying one specific avatar as their core representation. Despite the fact that Goffman’s interaction order work involved our day to day social interaction, it can still be argued that the use of alts as previously outlined in this paper is a materialization of Goffman’s work – that in the modern society individuals assume several roles and as well as several identities in their day to day life (Goffman, 1990).

The information collected from second life (SL) inhabitants in respect to identity interaction revealed four major finding: -

  • Users later stop role playing and hence consequently becoming themselves
  • Irrespective of the intentions, individuals behave somewhat in a different way when interacting online
  • A number of individuals will engage in second life (SL) as themselves
  • While in online interaction individuals cover up some of their personality attributes while at the same emphasizing others

In respect to Goffman’s description, actors or performers initiate the use of props but eventually marginalize them; though, the actor or the performer stills continues performing on stage – however, only the unconscious performance is noted; in so doing, the user stills brings an offline self that performs while interacting with the online environment. Note that aspect of covering up personality attributes of oneself in online interaction is an example of impression management in the conventional physical face to face interaction as described in Goffman’s analysis or description in his interaction order work. In this case of covering up or concealing the personality attributes the actor or the performer is trying to control those elements or aspects of oneself that the audiences perceive. From this analysis it is clear that there is a notable link or connection between the online interaction behavior and Goffman’s interaction order theories (Baker, 2009).

Another area that can be considered in respect to self presentation in the online world is the ‘masking and unmasking’ in identity tourism. Identity tourism refers to the situation in which online environment user, for instance in second life (SL) or in blogging uses his or her anonymity potential to adapt a different race or gender.  By doing so, the user talks and behaves in a stereotypical manner. The users of second life (SL) have the tendency of conforming to this norm in the virtual world. Mostly, in respect to identity tourism, second life (SL) users will opt for avatars representing ethnic diversity. However, other online environment users will opt for avatars depicting western and American beauty culture. Generally, users within the main three virtual worlds (inclusive of second life) focus on western beauty concept. As such, older, overweight, and underweight users will always aim at creating younger, fashionable, and leaner versions of themselves (self presentation).  Equally, it is common for blacks to use white avatars with the hope or wish that they will be accepted (Arundale, 2010).

In fact, the documented literatures in respect to this issue reveal that the aspect or the idea of being white in the game comes along with certain social advantages. According to Goffman’s analysis, it can be argued that a person attempting or trying to match such a convention in second life (SL) becomes a cynical performer and the desire to win a specific self presentation from his or her audiences prevents him or her from being sincere.

In the modern world, bloggers writing about political issues have to exercise some form of self-censorship in order to avoid arrest and government filtering. This to them implies avoiding analyzing political sensitive topics or to employ some indirect tactics and deliver their intended message – for instance, commenting on the specific situation rather than pointing out their personal opinion, using symbolism and analogy or though writing anonymous content. From Goffman’s perspective, the political bloggers a present self image ‘give’ by editing their message to avoid government confrontation but as well use the aforementioned tactics with the hope that their audience will ‘give off’ and understanding their intended message (Arundale, 2010).

 Note that the aspect of self-censoring indicates that the political bloggers are forced to self present a politically acceptable personality. However, they try to depict their true self persona (self presentation) through employing the aforementioned tactics. As such, it can be concluded that the presentation of self is a reflection of a growing trend that says something about our evolution as a society. 




Arundale, R. (2010).Face as emergent in interpersonal communication: an alternative to Goffman. In: Bargiela chiappini F. and Haugh M (eds.) Face, communication and social interaction. London: Equinox Publishing.

Baker, A. J. (2009). Mick or Keith: blended identity of online rock fans. Identity in the Information Society; 2: 7-21.

Goffman, E. (1990). The presentation of self in everyday life. London: Penguin.

Jenkins, R. (2010). The 21st century interaction order. London: Routledge.

Miller, H. (n.d).The presentation of self in electronic life: Goffman on the Internet', Proceedings               of the embodied knowledge and virtual space conference, retrieved from   



Hardships, Discrimination, and Hate Crimes Experienced By Interracial Couples in California

Interracial marriage is the phrase that is used to refer to a marriage between two persons from different ethnic groups or from different races. A related phrase to interracial marriage is intercultural marriage that refers to a marriage relationship between two persons of different cultural backgrounds. As such, from a close look, intercultural marriage can be used to refer to interracial marriages. A good example of a intercultural marriage is a marriage between an Indian person and whose culture lays emphasis on the importance of family over the importance of individual benefits and a white person for instance in United States whose culture lays emphasis on individual autonomy.  Over the past few decades, relationships between persons of different cultural and ethnic groups have become increasingly common within States such California in which, there have been a substantial increase in number of persons engaging in intercultural or interracial marriages.

Historically, the concept of separation of races or purity had been promoted in all states of America – inclusive of California. Laws had been enacted to keep all the races separate. As such, marriages between the different races were prohibited in United States – and especially in individuals who by high merit of marriage would not uphold the limpidness of racial-ethnic groups. According to Davis (1991), the laws were worded in such a way marriages relationships between African Americans and Caucasians was illegal. However, by 1967, the Supreme Court declared all the laws that that prohibited interracial marriages unconstitutional. Despite this declaration or authorization/legalization of interracial marriage relationships by the Supreme Court of United state the number of interracial marriages across the various states still remained low due to the stigma that had been associated with interracial marriage and relationships.

As from 1980s, there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages and especially since the start of 21st century. The increase in interracial marriages in United States had been attributed to the changes in legal status concerning interracial marriages and the changing perceptions of Americans concerning individuals engaging in interracial relationships and marriages. Equally, the increase in interracial marriages in most states can be attributed to the declined societal prejudice towards interracial marriages and the decrease in shame experienced by interracial couples and their families. In addition, the changes in census forms have encouraged Americans to identify with all races comprising the population of America (Davis, 1991),

In United States and in California in particular, the growth or increase of interracial marriages and relationships is not uniform across individuals of the various races comprising the population. This simply implies that interracial marriages have been noted to increase in some ethnic and racial groups but not in others. For instance, there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages among the Asian Americans and the Native Americans. However, the number of interracial marriages among peoples of black race and other races has remained low. In most case, it has been noted that more black males do engage in interracial marriages than their counterpart female counterparts. The low rate of interracial marriage amongst the black race can be attributed to the continued disapproval of white-black intermixing. As such, interracial marriages with blacks still receive objection and negative feedbacks from the family member of the other couple and especially the white couple family members (Davis, 1991),

Interracial couples face numerous challenges or hardships. The hardships, discrimination, and hate crimes experienced by interracial couples are similar in almost all the states in America. The major hardships experienced by interracial couples are as a result of family oppositions. As such, there is a possibility of these couples having high levels of conflict. The likely explanation for the high conflict in interracial couples is that such couples may lack the necessary social support from their family members.  Equally, the high conflict level in interracial couples can be attributed to cultural differences. For the purpose of this paper, I will address hardships, discrimination, and hate crimes experienced by interracial couples due to lack of social support from family members and cultural differences.

Family oppositions to interracial marriages from a wider perspective can be argued as the major problem facing interracial couples in the state of California. Family and colleagues affect the success of any marriage relationship through failing to provide the much needed social support. For a marriage to be successful, couples need to receive complementing statements from their family members. For instance, complementing statement such as they are a perfect match for each other and that they have the ability of going through any difficulty together and be successful partners and subsequently parents. However, in most interracial marriages the family member are against the marriage and hence such complementing statement may not be available. As such, the family members and to some extend the friends are of negative impact to interracial couples. For instance, the family members and friends have been known to facilitate dissatisfaction between the two partners. In fact, Bryant and Conger (1999) argued that outside support is a crucial component of a healthy and long lasting marital success. However, most interracial couples don’t receive outside support from their family members. Conversely, it can be argued that one of the hardships experienced by interracial couples is unsupportive family members. The opposition from the family members then damages the couple relationship and hence increasing the likelihood of divorce.

The lack of developing protocols and social norms translates to a lack of support for interracial couples. The disapproval from family members makes the interracial couples to feel insecure and unwelcome and hence damaging their relationship. In fact, Bryant and Conger (1999) in their work argued that a lack of family and community support was associated to the high divorce rate among interracial couple. In a study conducted that interviewed black-white couples, it was found that most white partner’s family member opposed the marriage. The concerns highlighted by the white partner’s family members for the marriage disapproval grounds on societal issue. For instance, such societal concerns expressed by the white family includes safety concerns, issues to do with the probable problems the couple’s children will face, and concerns about the financial problems the white partner will face for entering in such a relationship.  Generally, the assumption here is that the blacks are inferior to the whites and as well they are not financially good (Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell, 1995).

Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell (1995) outlined that some studies conducted in California indicated that the black families had no issues with interracial marriages and accepted or supported it. Generally, there is less opposition to interracial marriage from the black families. Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell (1995) continue to outline that mothers are of great influence and their opinion in respect to the couple’s relationship matters most. Equally, the studies indicated that fathers from the white family side played a significant role in opposing the marriage relationship. As such, fathers were found to strongly oppose interracial marriages than mothers. The studies also indicated that the opinion of the white family mattered most. As such, there were few black families member who opposed the marriage relationship. Studies have also indicated that black families have minimal or less stringent rules as to who should count as a family member. This makes it easy to accept someone from a different race and incorporate him or her as a family member.

Generally, the complications experienced by interracial couple in California are because of the depressing societal altitudes concerning interracial relationships. For instance, Caucasian-black unions are least to occur basing on the longstanding negative beliefs concerning these relationships and marriages. Generally, the researchers conducted concerning why such marriage relationships are rare indicate that Caucasians’ families have a tendency of disapproving marriage relationships between them and blacks. However, the black have a tendency of approving their marriage relationships with the Caucasians. As such, the Caucasians have a feeling that the blacks are inferior and that they should not intermix by allowing their family members to intermarry with the blacks. Equally, another study indicated that those couples among the Caucasians who marry a black do so because of their rebelliousness and self-hate. This perception questions whether or not interracial couples are reciprocate love basing on the rejection received from the family members.  Equally, arguing from the point that the dominant culture has the tendency of disdaining Caucasian-black unions, it is equally hard to imagine that such married partners are capable of maintaining a healthy marital relationship (Bryant and Conger, 1999).

Asian Americans interracial relationships have also proved to be rocky. In California, Asian Americans have the highest interracial relationship than any other ethnic or racial group. It is important to note that despite this increase in interracial marriages amongst the Asian Americans and other races comprising the population of America, initially, interracial marriages between the Caucasians and the Asian Americans was prohibited in United State. For instance, in the year 1910, the California State comprehensively extended the 1850 Marriage Regulation Act to include Mongolians - that is the Koreans, Japanese, and Chinese. Subsequently in 1933, the California state further extended the same marriage regulation to marriage relationships or unions with the Malays – that is marriage relationship with the Filipinos. However, in 1948 in a case (Perez v. Sharp 1948) the discriminating Marriage Regulation was overturned by the judicial system of California. Equally, such, anti-miscegenation laws were later overturned by the U.S Supreme Court in 1967 in their ruling in (Loving V. Virginia).  Despite the fact that the rulings of these two cases legalized interracial marriages, the unconstructive societal viewpoints on interracial relationships and especially in respect to Caucasian black relationship has not really improved the situation (Bok-Lim Kim, 1998).

According to Bok-Lim Kim (1998), there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages between the United States military men and Asian women – especially, among Vietnams, Japanese, Philippines, and South Koreans. According to Bok-Lim Kim (1998), the increase of these interracial marriages among the military men can be attributed to the low socioeconomic standing of these women living within proximity to the military bases. Equally, the increase of theses interracial marriages between the military men and the Asian women is attributed to the diminished self esteem among these women as a result of their low social economic status. Bok-Lim Kim (1998) continues to outline that these interracial couples were found to display unconcerned optimism and courage despite the hardships they faced as a result of their cultural and language differences and as well the lack of social support from their communities and families. Additionally, Bok-Lim Kim (1998) continued to highlight that the Asian women in question continued to carry the cultural norms burden, which in most cases attracts a severe penalty for opting to marry outside their race and ethnic group. It is important to note that despite the fact there has been a notable improvement in Asian out marriages acceptance over the decades by their families and communities, the major hindrances or problems to the success of these marriage relationships is because of their differing cultural background.

Interracial marriages and relationships still remain divisive for a number of additional reasons. For instance, a number of Asian Americans remain upset because of the ever increasing number of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This is because they tend and hold that interracial marriage unions significantly reduce the number or pool for that case of eligible women and men who would have otherwise engaged in same culture marriage relationships or unions for that case. In fact, a number of Asian Americans have expressed fear that because of the increased number of out marriages within the last few decades there could be facing out of specific Asian groups in near future. Equally, a portion of Asian Americans are of the view point that because of the high number of Asian women involved in out marrying, a number of Asian American men may find themselves failing to marry because of the diminishing number of Asian American women (Fujino, 1997). As such, interracial marriage relationships have continued to face family rejection from Asian Americans families.

The African Americans are expressing a similar fear to the Asian American within the state of California. This is because as outlined by Fujino (1997) in his work by arguing that as African Americans women and men achieve or further their levels of education they are moving to higher economic levels. As such, just a few members of the African American population are left available for marriage within their race and ethnic group. The implication here is that this wills finally result to frustration to that portion African American desiring to marry within their ethnic and race group. As such, the advancement in academic or education level and the subsequent increase in earning level will increase the rate of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This equally brings us to conclusion interracial marriage relationships or unions are likely to face family objection within the Africa American family side.

Apart from family objection another issue with interracial couples within California is conflict due to differing cultural background and as well socioeconomics issues. Less commonality between interracial partners is presumed to destabilize interracial relationships because it makes it difficult to communicate clearly and to agree on most life issues – negotiating and arriving to a satisfactory agreement becomes a problem for interracial partners. Issues of disagreement result to marital conflicts such as physical violence and behavioral complications such as infidelity, jealousy, irritating habits and foolish spending habits.

From a general perspective, most of the hardships and other problems experienced in interracial relationships or unions are direct or unique results of interracial experience.  Interracial marriages and relationships still remain divisive for a number of additional reasons. For instance, a number of Asian Americans remain upset because of the ever increasing number of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This is because they tend and hold that interracial marriage unions significantly reduce the number or pool for that case of eligible women and men who would have otherwise engaged in same culture marriage relationships or unions for that case. In fact, a number of Asian Americans have expressed fear that because of the increased number of out marriages within the last few decades there could be facing out of specific Asian groups in near future. Equally, a portion of Asian Americans are of the view point that because of the high number of Asian women involved in out marrying, a number of Asian American men may find themselves failing to marry because of the diminishing number of Asian American women (Fujino, 1997). As such, interracial marriage relationships have continued to face family rejection from Asian Americans families.

The African Americans are expressing a similar fear to the Asian American within the state of California. This is because as outlined by Fujino (1997) in his work by arguing that as African Americans women and men achieve or further their levels of education they are moving to higher economic levels. As such, just a few members of the African American population are left available for marriage within their race and ethnic group. The implication here is that this wills finally result to frustration to that portion African American desiring to marry within their ethnic and race group. As such, the advancement in academic or education level and the subsequent increase in earning level will increase the rate of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This equally brings us to conclusion interracial marriage relationships or unions are likely to face family objection within the Africa American family side.

Apart from family objection another issue with interracial couples within California is conflict due to differing cultural background and as well socioeconomics issues. Less commonality between interracial partners is presumed to destabilize interracial relationships because it makes it difficult to communicate clearly and to agree on most life issues – negotiating and arriving to a satisfactory agreement becomes a problem for interracial partners. Issues of disagreement result to marital conflicts such as physical violence and behavioral complications such as infidelity, jealousy, irritating habits and foolish spending habits.








Bryant, C.M., & Conger, R.D. (1999). Marital Success and Domains of Social Support in Long-   Term Relationship: Does the Influence of Network Members ever End? Journal of        Marriage and the family, 61, 437-450.

Davis, F. J. (1991). Who is Black? One Nation's Definition. University Park: Pennsylvania state     university press.

Fujino, D. C. (1997). "The Rates, Patterns and Reasons For Forming Heterosexual Interracial Dating             Relationships Among Asian Americans." Journal of Social and Personal Relationships      14:809–28.

Kim, K. (1998). "Marriages of Asian Women and American Military Men: The Impact of Gender and Culture." In Re-visioning Family Therapy: Race, Culture, and Gender in Clinical           Practice, ed. m. mcgoldrick. New York: Guilford press.

Rosenblatt, P.C., Karis, T.A., & Powell, R.D. (1995). Multiracial Couples: Black and White          Voices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.



Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:18

Economist: Crimea parliament

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Economist: Crimea parliament



On 27th February 2014, Russian soldiers without their uniform first seized the Crimea parliament. This marked the start of Russia’s war against Ukraine. On 27th February 2015, exactly a year later, Boris Nemtsov, an opposition politician in Russia was killed on a bridge in Kremlin. Before his death, he was handing out leaflets for an anti-war rally to be held on March 1st the same month. Ironically, the March he was planning to start hi anti-war campaign turned out to be his memorial procession. His death is the start of the return by Russia to campaign for political violence by Ukraine. It had been noted that aggression by Russia abroad and its repression in the country are closely linked (The Economist, 2015).

According to the state propaganda, Kiev’s revolution is considered a fascist coup while the Ukrainian government is considered a western-backed junta meant to harm the Russian rebels in Ukraine’s east. The media in the country urges all Russian patriots to fight the fascists in the country including Mr. Nemtsov who is considered a ring leader and identify pro-western liberals. Because of fear that Russia could have to face the Maidan revolution, the Kremlin has decided to use the same violence he used in Ukraine. Six days before the death of Nemtsov, Kremlin planned an anti-Maidan rally that forced Maidan troops into Moscow. The anti-Maidan rally supporters had slogans denouncing the Russian, Ukraine, and the West liberals (The Economist, 2015).

The anti-Maidan march acted as the peak of a long struggle of intolerance and hatred. This was supported by Nemtsov some hours before his death in an interview when he said that Russia was changing to a fascist state. This was because of the propaganda that was spreading that there was nucleus of assault brigades. There were also terrorist groups and pro-government extremists whose main aim was to fight opposition in areas where the police could not reach. Russian proved that it was outsourcing repression to fight against non-state groups showing a sign of state weakness. In order to conceal Nemtsov’s death that was believed to be by the government, Putin’s propagandists stated that the killing was by foreign liberals. They further argued that the opposition had warned to murder one of their own in order to blame the Kremlin. For the Russian liberals, this was believed to be a new sign of political repression, similar to what was evidenced in 1934 after the killing of Sergei Kirov (The Economist, 2015). 

Description of the Rhetorical Situation

            The article passes political messages explaining how politicians can use their power to suppress and repress those below them or those who go against them. It such cases, politicians do not care what a person is in the society or how close he is with the person. If a person does not weight his words properly, the politician will decide to silence him for good through murder. However, even when the evidence points on the politician who carried out the murder, the available evidence is not strong enough to incriminate the politician. In this case, the politician (the Kremlin) has the support of the government, which has decided to rule by oppressing anyone who goes against its leadership style. This is the fate Nemtsov suffers after deciding to belong to the liberals and challenge the government. While all the other liberals can clearly point the finger to the Kremlin as the assassin, they do not have sufficient evidence to incriminate him. And in fact, the Kremlin has words to defend himself. He blames the murder on other liberals and external forces (The Economist, 2015).

            The article is constructed for everyone who is interested in political matters and especially how some countries such as Russia are run. The author has decided to bring to light some hidden information that might never come to the surface. His content and style are clear to fit his target audience, the general public. He supports his information from the current issues that prove that Russian government is an oppressing government. The assassin ofNemtsov and the jailing of Alexei Navalny, a blogger and opposition leader to stop him from attending the organized anti-war rally are examples of current issues that have pushed the author to write the article(The Economist, 2015). He has also been pushed to write the article by the anti-Maidan protest that was conducted almost in the whole of Russia to fight against the liberals.

Evaluation of the Rhetorical Choices the Author makes

The author decided to step up and reveal his intentions, emotions, and confess what he thought to be the truth. The contents in the article are a good example of the author’s temper and mood (ethos). In the author’s opening paragraph, the mood is set as he explains the death of the greatest opposition leader in the country. The author chooses strong words that demonstrate his feelings in a country in which the government that should be protecting its people is oppressing them. He explains how the government dislikes challenge and how it mercilessly deals with it in case it happens. He uses active verbs that carry the weight of his information. For instance, the author says, “Prompted by the far-fetched fear that the Maidan revolution could be replicated in Russia, the Kremlin has re-imported the violence it deployed in Ukraine”(The Economist, 2015). This is an indication that the government is not worried of the pleas of grievances of its people but has the solution to the Maidan revolution; using violence.

The author says that there are ‘pro-government extremists and terrorist groups which openly declare that their aim is to fight the opposition where the police cannot”(The Economist, 2015). This metonymic ‘fighting the opposition’ is onomatopoetic suggesting the extent the government is willing to go to achieve its goal of repressing its own people. The author is concerned with the words he chooses to show his emotions. He notes, “The anti-Maidan activists include the leather-clad ‘Night Wolves’ biker gang, who played an active role in the annexation of Crimea and have been patronised by Mr Putin. More alarming are MrKadyrov and his well-trained, heavily armed private militia of 15,000 men, who several months ago swore a public oath to defend Mr Putin”(The Economist, 2015). He uses metaphor ‘Night Wolves’ to explain how the government feels about people who pretend to be on its side and when out sight, they are in the opposition. Here, he also used active verbs and verbals ‘well-trained, heavily armed private militia of 15,000 men’ to explain how the government thinks the private militia is adequately prepared for war.  

Description of Choices I would have done differently

            I do not think there are things I would have done differently. The author uses all the best rhetorical choices that fit his article. His information has to be made clear by use of active verbs, metaphors, metonymic, onomatopoetic, and revealing his mood to show how he feels about the Russian government. This way, he explains how the government considers people who challenge it and how far it is prepared for the fight. From the author’s choice of words, it is evident that the government does not have friends and even those who swore to be by its side are noted to be wolves as night. I would have made the same choices as the author to pass the message to the target audience clearly. 




The Economist. (Mar 7th2015). Russia after Nemtsov: Uncontrolled violence. Retrieved from

Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:13

cloud based human capital technology

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cloud based human capital technology

In the course of recent decades, the part of HR has confronted various weights and subsequently is quickly evolving. Due to this, the part of HR is relied upon to give customary operational and staff benefits too suspect, react to particular, and key business needs. As of now, there is a major test that human asset proficient's face and that is the test of addressing business needs utilizing an innovation that is as a part of quick change. Cloud-based human capital innovation applications have presented new channels that can help HR experts change HR to be an administration supplier as well as a corporate counsel. By continually adopting cloud-based human capital applications, it will become easier to deal with ongoing Personnel issues, eliminate inefficient processes, increase profitability, and improve corporate communications.


Cloud innovation alludes to a type of processing where numerous gatherings of remote servers are organized with a specific end goal to encourage incorporated information preparing and stockpiling that gives online access to PC frameworks, assets, and administrations. Mists can either be private, open, and crossover. Because of this, it turns out to be clear that human capital innovation that is cloud-based includes the sharing of diverse HCM applications between a few clients.

In the later past, it has turn out to be clear that these common applications have the capability of giving various advantages to all clients that prompts the expansion of business results. Because of this combination, it turns out to be clear that HR offices and IT divisions cannot be isolated any longer in the wake of this innovation that looks to join their capacities to facilitate business needs and operations. Along these lines through these applications organizations will have the capacity to convey better information, increase the value of items and administrations, and in addition be more vital in their business operations. Through these applications and given the way that the innovation is still experiencing significant change then we expect or foresee real changes in administration procedures for ability, hierarchical structure, ways to deal with danger administration, and capital speculation choices.

From this discernment, it is clear that HCM applications that are cloud-based will help CEOs to select and hold the most skilled representatives. This will be based on the grounds that the information they gather utilizing these applications goes about as a type of insight that empowers the scout to survey a man's inward ability given their obligations in light of their intrigues, certificates, and skill. In this way cloud-based, human capital innovation gets more adaptability to the business environment that empowers successive development, improvement of portable access, appropriation of basic achievement components, and parity secrecy that will accompany better social procedures.


Notwithstanding the way that the appropriation of this innovation has its merits, it is essential to guarantee that the procedure of reception is the right one to forestall future difficulties. In addition, it is important to note that the use of these applications will help the senior managers, Suppliers, Customers, and general employees to experience a better business atmosphere because these applications will help to make service delivery easier. Employees will also have more time to do other chores, as their workloads will be reduced. This in turn will lead to increased business efficiency.



Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:04

Training and Development of Human Resource Project

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Training and Development of Human Resource Project



Developing a Leadership Development Training Program for Moller & Maersk (M&M) Group

Human resources are very important assets in an organization. This is not the era in which human resources were considered objects that could be ordered around. All the activities and tasks in organizations are carried out by human resources. Irrespective of the size of the organization as well as the extent of the resources, the organization succeeds as a result of the performance and capabilities of the people who are the employees. It is therefore the responsibility of the organization to maximize the capabilities and performance of the employees through human resource management. The human resource function in an organization incorporates several activities including the staffing needs the organization has and how to fulfill them, recruitment and training strategies to have the top talents, handling performance issues, and ensuring that the human resource practices conform to the stipulated regulations (Ofori,Sekyere-Abankwa&Brquaye, 2012).

Organizations are required to ensure that human resources continue to be productive assets for the organization. This is done through training and development in which the employees are equipped with the necessary skills that will enable them perform their tasks effectively and to satisfactory levels. Training and development program would be of great help in the case of Maersk Group, which is faced with a number of challenges in human resource management. The talent management issues according to Maersk Group that need to be addressed are increased employee turnover, increased employee diversity, internal training and development programs, rehiring previous employees, and hiring experienced employees from the external labor market.

Even with these evidenced challenges, Maersk Group has to have the right talents in the right job at the right time. However, this does not mean that the company should always be losing top talents and hiring new fresh employees from colleges. There is thus need of the company coming up with a training and development program that would help solve the identified human resource issues. Even though there are different ways of ensuring effective training and development programs in organizations, the ADDIE is among the best. This model has five major phases that make the training and development program easy to plan and implement. This is because the training and development program should not only align with the goals of the organization but also with the learning needs of the employees who will participate in the training program.


            Even though all employees in an organization are important, there are some who are critical to others because of their indispensable nature. This is based on the fact that some employees are hard to replace and leaving the organization is a big blow. It is easy to replace the junior employees because their assigned tasks are general and less complicated and new employees can easily learn them. This is not the same case for top managers who require not only the knowledge and skills learned in school but also the experience that is earned by working in a certain organization. Such employees are also holding very important positions in the organization that might take long to replace. The greatest challenge faced is when a manager was in the midst of implementing a project that when left incomplete would negatively affect the organization (Alagaraja, 2013). These are some of the challenges Maersk might be exposed to as a result of increased employee turnover. Increased employee diversity is also a great challenge to the organization since if not effectively managed, the organization might evidence conflicts. However, with effective management of employee diversity, Maersk would benefit from the advantages of diversity such as varying skills/ talents.

As a result of changes in technology, there is also need of an effective training and development so that they do not get obsolete. With changes in technology, employees should be trained to be conversant with the applied technologies in the organization. Maersk also requires a hiring, training, and development program that will enable it hire experienced and skilled talents from the labor market. Maersk should be able to hire and retain top talents by matching them with the right jobs. This also requires rehiring previous employees who have maybe left and become more skilled and experienced in the same positions they held or even in higher positions. These are the human resource gaps that the organization should address. The main aim of the developed training and development program is to have the best talents who match the assigned tasks and thus report excellent results.

The training and development should ensure that the organization has very experienced and skilled talents for the first 120 positions. These are the people who are vital to the organization and who ensure that the goals of the organization are met. These are the people who are responsible for matching the tasks assigned to all other employees with the strategic plans of the organization. These positions should be filled by specifying the education, training, and work experience levels. In order to work in the HR field, the chosen candidate should have a bachelor’s degree in HR field, business, or related field. For those filling the top most HR positions, Master’s degree would be considered. Further, the candidate should have work experience of over three years in a related position. One should also be working an equivalent firm and managing over 2000 employees. Additionally, one needs to be qualified in certain skillsincluding mathematical aptitude, HR principles and practices, effective communication skills, strong interpersonal skills, and laws governing HR management.

The tasks of the HR manager include handling all HR issues in the organization including hiring the right talents for each job so that they perform the assigned tasks satisfactorily. The HR manager should ensure that the hired employees are trained to fulfill their learning needs. This is beneficial for the organization as employees would be able to perform the assigned tasks effectively and efficiently, meeting targets and standards. With the training and development, employees would be able to use the applied technology in the organization to achieve the set objectives of the firm through improved performance and productivity. The expected constraints include limitation of non-human resources and a strict timeline. The assessment tools and methods to use are training workshops, group discussions, and registration for formal college education. There are four terminal learning objectives for the case of Maersk namely decreasing employee turnover rates, increasing and understanding employee diversity, increasing rehiring of previous employees, and attracting the best talents from the labor market.


The purpose of this training and development program is to have the best program that would help solve the identified issues. The identified issues are increased employee turnover, increased employee diversity, internal training and development programs, rehiring previous employees, and hiring experienced employees from the external labor market. The program would set the deadline for achieving the set objectives, assign the tasks to be performed in achieving the objectives, and provide the required resources. This will be done as discussed in the learning objectives below:

The Learning Objectives

Decreasing Employee Turnover Rates

Action: Enhancing employee motivation by matching assigned tasks with the level of employee skills through training programs aligning with the current technology

Conditions: Contact employees who are performing poorly in their jobs and complain of job complexity 

Standards: Engage them in training programs to have them fit in their assigned tasks, conduct the training within duration of two weeks

Increasing and Understanding Employee Diversity

Action: Enhancing multiculturalism at Maersk by encouraging employee diversity

Conditions: Contact two supervisors who are in charge of diverse employees and who are complaining of challenges posed by diversity

Standards: Engage the supervisors in a-one week training addressing issues of employee diversity

Increasing Rehiring of Previous Employees

Action: Increasing rehiring of top talents back to the organization

Conditions: Identify five top talents that Maersk is interested in rehiring

Standards: Conduct research within three weeks regarding the best strategies to apply in attracting the previous top talents

Attracting the Best Talents from the Labor Market             

Action: Beating competitors in attracting and retaining top talents from the labor market

Conditions: Changing the hiring system at Maersk to be able to attract the best employees from the labor market.

Standards: Redesigning the training and development program at Maersk.

Training Methods

            The training program will take around three weeks in a classroom form of teaching with each class taking one hour each day, five days in a week. The trainers will be encouraged to research on what they are about to be taught. This will be done through classroom presentation and demonstration. Other training methods are lecturing, discussions, and practice in each of the identified learning objectives. Demonstration by the lecture is the primary training method since the trainer has to go round the classroom, coordinate all the trainers, and use power point slides. Demonstration will also be used during the group discussions that are meant to enhance interpersonal competency. During the demonstrations, the trainers would be involved in practical exercises in the form of performance oriented tests and performance oriented training. This makes it easy for the instructor to measure the learning outcome of the trainers by measuring the level of the learned skill.

Training Materials

  • A proximaprojector
  • A laptop computer
  • Textbooks for research

Lesson Plan

Title: A Training and Development Program Lesson Plan

Description: This lesson plan is required for solving the HR issues evidenced at Maersk

Subject: Training and Development Program

Grade: Senior employees at Maersk

Topic: Reducing employee turnover

Content: Research involving strategies of addressing employee turnover issues

Goals: The senior employees at Maersk would be able to understand the costs of high turnover rates of employees

Objectives: Given the evidenced problem, the trainers would understand the causes of employee turnover and the possible solutions. Through research, the trainers would be able to ensure increase employee satisfaction enhancing retention.

Materials: Projector, laptop, and research books

Introduction: Ask the senior employees chosen as the trainers if they understand any probable causes of turnover rates in the organization and the possible reasons they think would work.

Development: Using the probable strategies used in other organizations to solve the same issues, the instructor would start with it as the starting point.

Practice: The trainers would be involved in a lot of research and share in this in class with other trainers.

Check for Understanding: This will be done with evaluation test at the end of the training program

Closure: Finish up the training up program after three weeks by ensuring that the trainers understand what was being taught

Training Evaluation Criteria

Hands-on skills tests would be used to test the learning level of the students by gauging the training received. This will be before the training program is closed, immediately after covering the set learning objectives. There would also be an evaluation to test the reaction of the trainers, which will be through a questionnaire after the hands-on test. The questionnaire will report the feelings and attitudes of the participants and would also evaluate the effectiveness of the training method. 


After the HR issues faced in the organization are identified and the            learning objectives set, the next step would be the training program of few selected senior employees in the organization to test the planned training and development program that should be applicable to all the employees. The next step would be the implementation process as the tested program is employed in the entire organization. The implementation process would start with identification of the implementation team. This would be done with a project team comprising or organization members as well as the external aid of experts in the field. Maersk would hire the help of a HR personnel expert who would help in implementing the training and development program. He would help to ensure that the learning needs of each employee are identified and addressed appropriately. He would also foresee arrangement of how employees would get time off work to get into formal education to improve their skills and match with advancing technology. The expert would work closely with the HR team selected from the company.

With strategic HR goals aligned with the organization mission and vision, Maersk is likely to succeed. This is supported by Mohammed, Bhatti, Jariko and Zehri (2011)when they argue that human resources are the resources in delivering organizational services. This training and development programs would help the organization with plans to meet current and future human resource needs in order to succeed. Strategic human resource management helps in ensuring that human resource management decisions support the organization’s future direction, which is ensured by having employees who up to date with the current technology. The training and development program implemented at Maersk should also ensure that the organization keeps up in pace with social, technological, economic, and legislative trends that are linked to human resources so that the organization remains flexible and ready for change if the future is not as expected.

            According to Ali(2013),the training and development program should be designed in such a way that it helps in predicting the future human resource management needs after considering the current human resources of the organization, the labor market, and the future human resource environment the organization will be involved in. It is also through the program that Maersk will be able to effectively analyze human resource management issues that are external to the environment. As noted by AlYahya, Mat andAwadh(2013),a training and development program helps an organization determine where it is headed, the human resource strategies required to help the organization get the planned destination, and the skill sets required for the move.

The training and development program should be concerned with different human resource initiatives including of recruitment, talent nurturing, compensation and reward, training and development, and performance management among others. The compensation and reward function would ensure that the organization designs and administers compensation benchmarking as well as competency/ function based compensation strategies. This function should also create benefit programs that attract and make employees committed to their jobs. This package includes salaries, vouchers, bonuses, medical insurance, life assurance, commission, dental plans, company cars, profit sharing, and pensions among others. Through the training and development program, there is right compensation to the right talents at the right time. This implies that employees are assured of adequate compensation for the services they offer to the organization (Alagaraja, 2013), which increases satisfaction decreasing turnover rates. The hard-working employees in this case are rewarded fairly and in an effective manner resulting to motivation and increased performance of the employees. With effective compensation and reward scheme for the company, the training and development program helps in retaining and motivating employees as well as attracting new talents to the organization.


The evaluation of the program would be conducted after the implementation process to measure the success of failure of the program. Using the four Kirkpatrick levels, reactions, learning (retention), behavior (transfer), and organization-level results, to determine the far the program has benefited Maersk. It is expected that the training and development program helps managers work together with the employees to monitor, plan, and review the contribution of the employees to the organization. This way, the organization management is able to set objectives for the employees, assess their progress, and provide continuous coaching/ training and feedback so that employees are meeting their career goals. This function is meant to ensure that employees’ effectiveness is promoted and improved. Further, it would be ensured that the jobs are well-designed, there are clear written jobs descriptions, employees are effectively supervised, the employee training and orientation is comprehensive, and the work environment is supportive and positive (Ofori,Sekyere-Abankwa&Brquaye, 2012).

This program is also a major component for Maersk since it ensures that the organization is able to hire the best talents for any job position in a timely and cost-effective way. The recruitment process according to Anyadike(2013) involves analysis of the job requirements, attracting the right talents for the identified position, screening the probable candidates, hiring the best candidate, and integrating the hired employee to the position and to the entire organization. Training and development on the other hand is noted as a function that betters the performance of individual employees to ensure increased productivity of the organization. Talent nurturing is also an important function for training and development programs and is meant to ensure that the organization has the best talents and these talents are retained in the organization.                    

The reactions of the employees should be positive for the program to be regarded successful. The employees involved in the training and development program should also prove that they have learned what was required as evidenced through their behavior in the work place. The organization-level results would also evaluate the program. With reduced turnover rates and increased retention as well as attraction of the top talents from the top market, it would be evident that the program is effective. 


Alagaraja, M. (2013).The strategic value and transaction effectiveness of HRD: A qualitative study of internal customer perspectives.European Journal of Training and Development, 37(50, 436-453.

Ali, A. (2013). Significance of human resource management in organizations: Linking global practices with local perspective. Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, IV(1), 78-87.

AlYahya, M. S., Mat, N. B., &Awadh, A. M. (2013). Review of theory of human resources development training (learning) participation. Journal of WEI Business and Economics, 2(1), 47-58.

Anyadike, N. (2013). Human resource planning and employee productivity in Nigeriapublic organization.Global Journal of Human Resource Management, 1(4), 56-68.

Mohammed, J., Bhatti, M. K., Jariko, G. A., &Zehri, A. W. (2011). Importance of human resource investment for organizations and economy: A critical analysis. Journal of Managerial Sciences, VII(1), 127-133.

Ofori, D. F., Sekyere-Abankwa, V., &Brquaye, D. B. (2012). Perceptions of the human resource management function among professionals: A Ghanaian study. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(5), 159-178.

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