Items filtered by date: December 2021

Wednesday, 22 December 2021 07:00

Operating system security

 Operating system security





Within every organization where a communication system is installed, there must be an operating system that is used to run the whole outfit.  The operating system is always prone to attacks that may lead to destruction of data or instances of private data falling into the wrong hands. This access is from unauthorized access by individuals as well as other programs including malware, viruses and other destructive programs.

In this regard, there is need for the management of the organization to ensure that measures are put in place to enhance security of information contained within the system. This can be done through installation of protective programs such as antivirus software. Unauthorized access by individuals can be reduced by ensuring that access protocols are enhanced and maintained as private.

Magnitude of the threat of security to operating systems

With each day, more organizations join the internet community. This is in seeking for better business operations alongside the need for better communication. In so doing, personal and organization information continues to be uploaded to the internet and hence access from different sources. This includes banking information as well as customer databases for the organization.

In a report by an American organization, the available and mostly used operating systems that includes Microsoft windows and Linux, the level of security among them is considerably low and was classified as level C2.  At this level, the user of the operating system remains entirely responsible for individual security of their individual systems and the information contained therein.  This means that the operating systems do not contain any inbuilt mechanisms that enforce security policies. Thos is despite the fact that developers of the operating systems continue to make promises of a more better and achievable security application. Through the use of kernel-enforced controls, a higher and better level of security access can be achieved at a B Class level.

Common threats and attacks on an operating system

Within an organization, employees, management and other involved parties share a lot within the same system. These include the hardware, software, information, disk drives and other storage media among others. However, in some areas the level of access to all these resources is limited to the duties and responsibilities in the hands of an individual user. With this access there are common attacks and violations that are bound to occur either as a result of an attack by a malware or an individual person acting as a hacker. These attacks may either be internal or external with intent of stealing some important information or alternatively to destroy information contained within the system.

Common attacks can be categorized in the following groups:

  • There are violations that basically refer to access of information by unauthorized individual and this in effect leads to breach of confidentiality. This occurs in instances such as where personal and confidential information is retrieved from the system. This may include secret formulas used in production processes, personal information of employees and customers that include bank details, contact information and financial information of an individual. Another violation is breach of integrity. This refers to a situation where an individual with unauthorized access to an operating system makes modifications to the access structure of a system. Using such access, the hacker makes modification to the system resources and thereby gains a chance to share untrustworthy information to other users of the system. Thirdly, there is breach of availability where after an attack; some users are blocked from accessing some of the resource within the system. This may include among other factors blocking certain users by making changes to the security and access codes used with the operating system. This may also be referred to as denial of service as it denies certain users from having a legitimate use of the resources available. Finally, the last violation is theft of service. This occurs in circumstances where the hacker either through the use of malware and such like applications manages to gain access to communication systems and in such way giving chance and ability to listen or gain access to any confidential communication happening within the system. This includes among others tapping of conversation through the phone or chat lines.
  • Another common attack that may occur is masquerading. In this kind of attack, the hacker manages to get a link between two individuals and can communicate to either of them pretending to be the one on the other side of a communication. In this way, the attacker is able to gain access to confidential information that is shared by the parties in question.
  • The final and common type of attack that may occur is the reply attack. This involves among other factors changing the reply line in a system. This in return generates reply messages to mail content that may be malicious or with false information to the sender.

Areas of consideration in security systems

The operating system is entirely responsible for all the operations of the communication system within the organization. In this regard, it means it is required to provide adequate access to all the resources within the entire communication system. It is for this reason that security for the same requires to be enhanced within all levels of the system this means therefore that there are four levels within which the security of the system must be enhanced to achieve a meaningful security apparatus.

Physical protection is the basic protection that maybe accorded to any system. It is apparent that any individual with access to the system whether authorized or not can have access to some of the basic components of the system. These include backup storage devices and other removable media. Through such access, the individual can easily have access to information stores within the system that he or she might to wage an attack on the entire system or other users within the system. In this regard, access to various terminal within the system should be adequately protected through various protection models such as ensuring that access to secondary storage and removable and usage within the system is restricted to authorized users only.

Those operating within the system are perceived to be trustworthy and responsible for any information that maybe contained within the system. While this may sound adequate top provide enough security for the system, there are instances where a few individuals may leak confidential information either willingly or through coercion. Coercion in this regard may occur in a number of ways that include phishing which basically means sending the user an innocent looking email or spam that request for certain information to be forwarded. This may purport to be from banking institutions, PayPal or other such like body. The other method commonly use is dumpster diving where the hacker gains access to trash or any other location where access information may have been recorded. Finally, password cracking is the most commonly used method. Smart hackers are able to crack the users password as t is being typed or using the known information about the user and makes guesses on the possible password that might be used.

The operating system has the overall charge of  running the communication system. However, despite the fact that it is in some instances created to protect itself from common attacks, it is also prone to malware and other program attacks. To protect the operating system from such attacks use of antivirus software and activation of security devices within the system such as firewall is important. Such programs always protect the operating system from being accessed by any unrecognized application and if has to gain access, the user must give consent.

In most organizations, communications is normally enhanced through a networked system. With the growing trends and technological advances, use of wireless devices is becoming more prevalent and as such raising the risk of attacks from different quarters. Enhancing protection of a network in a great way improves the overall security of the system.

Creating a security model

An effective security system for the operating system requires to offer adequate protection for the entire system at all times and against all kinds of attacks. This can be done effectively through denial of access by untrustworthy programs as well as unauthorized individuals. As such, measures are required to ensure that this is achieved adequately. To achieve this, it is required that authentication procedures be put in place that will enhance identification of the user by the operating system to give access to the resources provided within the system. Of importance to note is the fact that most operating systems lack adequate measures on restricting access though a discretionary access control is available. This means that the owner or the administrator of the operating system has authority to limit access by individuals and content controlled by the operating system.

However, the discretionary controls in the modern age have little or no impact on the full protection of the system. This is for the reason that it mainly focuses on the initial access to the system. With the growth internet accessibility and the heavy entrepreneurship, that has been gaining roots on the internet. A secure operating system requires to have some of this basic requirement.

  • Mandatory security that refers to the ability of the operating system to allow users to implement that available security tools to the advantage of individual security requirements. This allows for authentication of the user as well as controlling the paths by ascertaining the sources and targets of any object that gains access to the system.
  • A trusted path mechanism that allows the user to rely on the trustworthiness of a particular application. In this way, the user gets the chance to allow a certain program to run within the system where modalities are required to curb impersonation. In such a way, the user gets a chance to input upgrades on the system while they are required and available.
  • It should be one that supports diverse security policies. In this regard, it requires not to be too restricted. This will allow for users and applications to surpass and modify the security requirements to allow for any installation of changes to the system while at the same time maintaining the same high security measures.
  • It should have a process of assurance to the user. This means therefore that the set security measures should provide a verification mechanism to ensure that there is compatibility of any new installation or access process when changes are made or implemented.


Rapid growth of the internet industry and the changing trends in communication designs put companies and individual information at risk. Every aspect of the security model requires to address emerging trends in the industry to ensure there is adequate security for the information. As such user and program authentication by the operating systems of the applications operating within the system and the users as well.

Among the common models that are put in place for user authentication includes the use of passwords. With the increases usage of the passwords, hacking of the same has been on the increase. As such, creation of a password requires that that cannot be easily guessed. This includes among others use of numbers and symbols alongside letters in creation of passwords. One time passwords usage may also be necessary to ensure that security is enhanced. Other identification measures such as fingerprint and facial identification are also important to enhance the security of a system. This requires installation of special programs and other accompanying hardware to enhance the security process. Relevant applications to guard against malware and virus infections.






Abraham Silberschatz, Greg Gagne, and Peter Baer Galvin, "Operating System Concepts, Seventh Edition ", Chapter 15

Ames, Stanley R., Jr., and J.G. Keeton-Williams, (1980). “Demonstrating security for trusted applications on a security kernel base”, IEEE Comp. Soc. Proc. Symp. Security and Privacy, April 1980

Charlie Kaufman, Radia Perlman, and Mike Speciner,(1995). “Network Security: Private Communication in a Public World”, PTR Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

D.E. Bell and L. J. La Padula, (1973). “Secure Computer Systems: Mathematical Foundations and Model”, Technical Report M74-244, The MITRE  Corporation, Bedford, MA,  DOD 5200.28-STD,(1985). “DOD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria” (Orange Book),

  1. A. Loscocco, S. D. Smalley, P. A. Muckelbauer, R. C. Taylor, S. J.Turner, and J. F. Farrell, (1998). “The Inevitability of Failure: The Flawed Assumption of Security in Modern Computing Environments”, Proceedings of the 21st National Information Systems Security Conference, pages 303-314,

Wulf, W. A., Levin, R., and Harbison, S. P.,(1981) “HYDRA/C.mmp: An Experimental Computer System”, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Published in Essays
Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:59

Environmental and societal factors

Environmental and societal factors are some of the major factors that hugely affect the behaviors of today’s children. The major societal factor that determines the behaviors of today’s children is peer influence. Interaction is a major aspect of society living for children. Children interact with their peers while in school and as well as at home. Exposures to peer influence on a daily bases while at school and while at home impact the behavior of a child due to the influence of others. The desire to win acceptance within a group make children to behave in certain manners in order to conform to their peers. Within a peer group, dominance children tend to use physical actions and words to intimidate other children to behave in certain manners. As such, peer influence is a major societal factor that explains the behaviors of today’s children (Carey, 2009). 

A major environmental factor that may explain the behaviors of today’s children is the home environment. The home environment may have a positive or a negative impact on children’s behaviors. For instance, a home setting environment where there is frequent domestic violence makes children to change their behaviors because of insecurity reasons. Equally, an unsafe school setting environment makes children to depict unacceptable behaviors. Arguably, bullying and other teasing behaviors are more common in children from insecure home setting environments (Carey, 2009). 

Schools have a role to play to impact to the lives of children’s positively. This is basing from the assumption that the teacher should be a role model to the students. Additionally, schools are learning centers where proper behaviors are taught and learned. As such, apart from imparting knowledge to children, the curriculum design of the schooling system should be such that proper behaviors are taught to develop a wholesome future adult.



Carey, W. B. (2009). Developmental-behavioral pediatrics. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier.

Published in Essays
Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:58

Divorce causes and consequences:

Divorce causes and consequences:




Table of Contents

Abstract: 2

Introduction: 3

Statistics: 4

Risk factors: 5

Factors that cause divorces: 6

Consequences of divorce: 7

Why individuals prosper or struggle after a divorce; 8

Solution: 8

Conclusion: 9

References: 10









Divorce rate has over the years been on the increase across the world, the increase in divorce rates is related to various risk factors and causes, risk factors include young individuals’ marriages, income, education, religious affiliation and personality factors. Causes of divorce include physical abuse, emotional abuse and infidelity. Consequences of divorce include depression, happiness, and alcohol and drug abuse among other consequences. When individuals divorce, they are likely to experience change, they may either prosper or face problems and this will depend on the nature of the divorce they face, individuals will prosper if they break from an abusive marriage, they will also prosper if they embrace change and accept the situation. Individuals will not prosper if they do not embrace change and if they remain attached to their ex partners. This paper focuses on this issues and analysis these issues to bring about a greater understanding into divorce all over the world.









Divorce rates have increased at an alarming rate in the world, an example is the divorce rate in the United Arab Emirates, the national bureau of statistics indicates that number of divorce registered were 3,901 in 2012 and this increased to 4,233 in 2013. (UAE Bureau of statistics 2014). This trend is expected to increase over the years. This paper focuses on the causes and consequences of divorce all over the world. The paper also discusses the high risk factors and how they affect divorce rates. Using statistics and previous study on divorce, this paper brings a greater understanding into the issue of divorce and shows how divorce rates can be minimized, it also provides information on how individuals can cope with divorce in order to prosper, it recommends that individuals trapped in abusive marriages should get divorced in order to live happier and satisfactorily.  It is recommended that individuals should engage in marriage at an appropriate age given that when younger people marry, they are more likely to get divorced given that they are less likely to make appropriate decision regarding their marriage partner. Living with partners before marriage also brings about a greater understanding of their partners reducing divorce rates. Finally, it is important that partners should be religious given that evidence shows that individuals with religious affiliation are less likely to get divorced given that they get counseling and religious teachings that help them cope with problems appropriately. The following is a discussion of the statistics, risk factors, and the causes of divorce. The paper also focuses on the consequences and why individuals prosper or face problems after a divorce.




In the United States, first marriage divorce rate is at 50 %, there are those individuals who divorce and remarry and this is termed at second marriages, the second marriage divorce rate is usually higher at 60%. The following is a discussion of these risk factors that lead to higher divorce rates.

Risk factors:

Risk factors are the factors that influence divorce rates, these are factors that when present, divorce rates are expected to be higher. The following is a discussion of these risk factors, which include young couples, education, and income, pregnancies before marriage, parent divorce, and religious affiliation and personality factors. Younger couples are a risk factor, when individuals marry at a younger age, this increases the rate of divorce in their marriages; and this is because at this age they are not able to make wise decision regarding marriage. However when individuals marry at an older age, they are likely to be more mature and able to make better decision regarding their marriage and able to handle challenges that face their marriages.  Education is also a factor that determines the divorce rate, individuals with higher education are more likely to maintain their marriages better and therefore reduce divorce rates, therefore lower education levels are likely to increase divorce rates. Income is another factor, the income level will also be a factor that determines divorce rates, individuals with lower income are likely to experience higher divorce rates compared to higher income earners, this is because financial stress is likely to break marriages.  Pregnancies before marriage is also another factor,  Individuals who have children before marriage at an early stage are likely to have higher divorce rates, this is connected to the fact that these individuals are likely to have more than one partner and may still be connected to the father of their children especially when marriage is with a different partner. Parent divorce of a partner is also another risk factor, Individuals that experienced their parents’ divorce are more likely to have lower divorce rates, and this is because these individuals work hard to make sure that their own marriages work given that they have experienced the painful consequences experienced when their parents divorced. Religious affiliation is also a contributing factor; Individuals with some religious affiliation are more likely to have lower divorce rates compared to individuals with no religious affiliation. This means that religion plays an important role in molding behavior and counseling reducing divorce rates. Personality factors are the other risk factors. Some personality factors may also contribute to higher divorce rates, one of these factors is insecurity. When individuals feel insecure, they are more likely to break their marriages leading to increased divorce rates.

Factors that cause divorces:

There are various factors that lead to divorce; these factors include physical abuse, emotional abuse and infidelity. Infidelity is one of the leading causes of divorce, unfaithfulness is considered to be one of the factors considered by religious and authorities to be an occurrence that confirms the need for divorce, and this means that unfaithful partners increase the rate of divorce. Physical abuse refers to situations where an individual damages property when angry, kicking, pushing and slapping, threatens using a weapon and hurts children. Physical abuse can be y the wife or husband and this shows these are factors that individuals in marriages should avoid in order to avoid divorce. Emotional abuse refers to a situation where a marriage partner calls the other names, threatens to hurt, isolates and sometimes humiliates partners and sometimes ignores the feelings of a partner. All these forms of abuse lead to the increased rate of divorce Addiction is another factor that causes divorce, many marriages have ended when individuals get addicted to drugs and alcohol.  This is a leading cause of divorce that has led to separation in families. (Stewart and Brentano, 2007).

Consequences of divorce:

Divorce has various consequences, some are positive whereas others are negative depending on the reason why a couple divorce, the impact is also different when it comes to who is divorced or contributed to the divorce or the number of children and the nature of the divorce. These consequences include happiness, depression and alcohol and drug abuse. Happiness is one of the consequences of divorce, Divorce in some way can cause happiness; individuals divorced from an abusive marriage will experience increased happiness because of reduced stress. This is one of the reasons why individuals divorce, which is to have a happier life free of stress resulting from abusive partners. Depression is the other consequences of divorce and is negative consequence, when divorce occurs, partners may face emotional stress and in some cases financial strain, which will lead to depression, which endangers the health of the individual experiencing the depression. (George Fink, 2010). Alcohol and drug abuse is the other common consequence, Individuals that experience divorce are likely to abuse drugs and alcohol, and they start using drugs as a way to escape from reality due to the stress they may be facing. This consequences results into even other major problems such as addiction and financial strain due to increased spending on alcohol and drugs. The increase in single parent families is the other consequence of divorce, as earlier discussed, there is a higher chance of a divorce in second marriage divorce and therefore divorce results into increased number of single parent families given that even after they remarry, the possibility of a divorce is high. (Craig Everett, 2011).


Why individuals prosper or struggle after a divorce;

In some cases, some individuals will thrive after a divorce whereas others will start to struggle after marriage breakage. There are various reasons why this occurs; individuals who break away from abusive marriages are more likely to thrive after a divorce. Another case where individuals thrive is the case where an individual embraces changes y taking into consideration that things have changed and the individuals who accept change are likely to prosper after a divorce. The attitude toward the divorce will also determine whether the individual prospers or struggles, individuals who do not want the divorce are likely to e negatively affected by the divorce, some individuals will view the divorce as a tragedy and therefore may face various consequences including stress and divorce. The level of Attachment to the ex-husband or wife will also determine whether individuals prosper, the level of attachment and the feeling of insecurity among partners will also determine whether the individuals prospers, those who are left attached to the ex partner are likely to experience problems in cases where their ex partner is unwilling to remain attached.


Solutions toward reducing divorce rates include proper education and counseling among young adults, guardians and parents should pass on important information regarding marriage to their children in order to ensure that young adults are well equipped to cope with marriage life. Young couples should seek professional help when they are faced with problems in order to avoid the unnecessary conflicts that lead to divorce. Another solution would e to ensure that marriages are performed at the appropriate age, as discussed above; one risk factor is marriages that occur when individuals are still young, therefore by ensuring that individuals are mature enough when entering into marriage would greatly reduce divorce rates. Religion also seems to reduce the divorce rate; therefore, couples should be encouraged to be affiliated with religion in order to receive the necessary education and knowledge regarding marriage. It is also important that disputes in marriage are settled out of court, when couples attempt to solve their problems in court, it is more likely that the marriage will end up in divorce, therefore it is important that the couples settle their disputes by themselves. Another solution is to ensure that decision in marriages are not made out of emotions, couples should learn to make optimal decisions that are not influenced by emotions. Another solution to reducing divorce rate is proper management of finances in the marriage, divorce is influenced by mismanagement of finances y a partner and therefore managing finances better will help save marriages.


From the above discussion, it is evident that Divorce rate has increased  in the United Arab Emirates over the years, the reasons to this increase is explained by the causes and risk factors discussed above. The reason for this increased divorce rate include the increased number of young individuals marriages, lower income, lower education achievement, less religious affiliation by married couples and personality factors. The increase in divorce may also have been caused an increase in physical abuse, increase in emotional abuse and the increased infidelity rates. Because of these causes, they have led to increased incidences of depression among divorced couples; increased happiness when couple is divorce from abusive marriages and increased drug abuse.





Alison Stewart and Cornelia Brentano (2007). Divorce causes and consequences. Yale: Yale University Press.

Craig Everett (2011). The Economics of Divorce: The Effects on Parents and Children. New York: McGraw Hill press.

George Fink (2010). Stress Consequences: Mental and Neuropsychological. New Jersey: prentice hall press.

Myles Munroe (2013). Single, Married, Separated, and Life after Divorce. New York: Destiny image publishing.

UAE Bureau of statistics (2014). Marriage and divorce statistics. Retrieved on 26th December, from




Source evaluation:


Alison Stewart and Cornelia Brentano (2007). Divorce causes and consequences. Yale: Yale University Press.

This is a primary source; it is a published book that provides information regarding the causes and consequences that are associated with divorce. Alison Stewart is a psychology professor at the university of California whereas Cornelia Brentano ios a psychology professor at Chapman university. They both have other previous written work on psychology including journals and periodicals.


Craig Everett (2011). The Economics of Divorce: The Effects on Parents and Children. New York: McGraw Hill press.

This is a primary source, it is a published book that provides information regarding the consequences that are associated with divorce. Craig Everett is a qualified psychologist who focuses on family counseling and divorce issues, He has authored other books and has contributed immensely to the divorce area of study, He holds a PhD in psychology.


George Fink (2010). Stress Consequences: Mental and Neuropsychological. New Jersey: prentice hall press.

This is a primary source; it is a published book that provides information regarding stress and depression that is associated with divorce. George Fink is a professor at the University of Edinburg which is located in Scotland, he has written over 340 articles on Neuroendocrinology. He is a Neuropharmacologist and a Neuroendocrinologist .

Myles Munroe (2013). Single, Married, Separated, and Life after Divorce. New York: Destiny image publishing.

This is a primary source; it provides an overview on the marriage life, divorce and life after divorce. Myles Munroe is a lecturer, author, church minister and a government consultant. He has published over 200 books and articles on the area of marriage and divorce.

UAE Bureau of statistics (2014). Marriage and divorce statistics. Retrieved on 26th December, from

This is a secondary online source which provides divorce statistics indicating the trend in divorce rate UAE, it provides information that help determine whether divorce rate is on the rise or declining. This is the official government statistics website that provides information regarding the population based on census done and data collected from government agencies.





Explanatory Synthesis Essay:


Divorce is a phenomenon that has been present for a long time, however due to social and economic changes, the divorce rate has increased and this has resulted into increased divorce rate. There are various factors that have resulted into an increase in this divorce rate; there are also factors that increase the risk of a family breaking up leading to a divorce. This paper shows the consequences of divorce where some are negative whereas others are negative. This paper also provides information on possible solutions that can be used in order to reduce divorce rate.




Published in Essays
Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:57

Jamie Oliver’s Organization Case Study Analysis



Jamie Oliver’s Organization Case Study Analysis

Task 1:

Recruitment, selection and retention:

Jamie Oliver’s organization has used strategic recruitment, selection and retention in its practices. this has ensured that the organization has maintained high value employees. The following is an analysis of the strategies that Jamie uses in the recruitment, selection and retention process, and an analysis of other strategies that Jamie should use in his organization.



Ronald R. Sims (2010) defines recruitment as a process that involves generating a large number of individuals who are qualified for a job. (Ronald R. Sims, 2010, pp 160). Recruitment is also defined as the process of discovering potential candidates for a job. The recruitment process starts with a want, according to the case study it is evident that Jamie wanted young inexperienced and unskilled individuals just like him who would take up training and employment in various restaurants.

The recruitment process has two main goals, the first goal is to attract qualified applicants and the second goal is to encourage individuals who are unqualified to select themselves out. This seems to be a strategy the Jamie used; he only encouraged the young inexperienced and unskilled individuals to apply. The selection process also involved various stages to ensure that those who did were unqualified would quit.

Conventional methods require that human resource manager take up a decision to recruit, they decide how many employees are needed, when they are needed and decide on the special qualifications. Jamie seems to have followed this procedure, he named his organization fifteen given that, he needed 15 trainees, he also specified the special qualifications for the individuals he selected and this was the unskilled yet highly motivated individuals who would take up the challenge to undergo training and take up three tests.

There are various strategic recruitment processes that organization uses; these include full time or part time recruitment, seasonal employment and temporary workers. Jamie seems to e using the temporary worker strategy, which involves trying before he employs the applicants. This is evident where recruited applicants have to undergo various stages and tests before they can qualify.

Jamie recruitment process did not follow conventional methods, which are based on skills and knowledge; you recruited individuals who were inexperienced and unqualified. In my own view, I would not use Jamie’s method, as indicated in the case study, Jamie faced various challenges including disruptions and demotivating given that they were inexperienced. Jamie however did not give up and continued on to the selection process, which involved various stages to select applicants.


The selection process is defined as a process that involves making a decision on whether to hire or not to hire; it is also defined as the process in which an organization chooses a qualified individual to fill up a position. The selection process follows various criteria, which include formal education, experience, past performance, physical characteristics and personal characteristics.

Selection involves testing recruited individuals, Jamie selected 60 applicants in his first process, and he also applied three tests, which involves determining whether the individuals were well equipped to fill up this position.

There are various tests that are applied in the selection process; these tests include personality tests, cognitive ability test, work ability testing and physical ability test. In the first stage, Jamie seems to apply the personality tests, these tests are applied to determine emotional and behavior pattern and thought. Jamie applied this test, which is aimed at determining whether an individual is enthusiastic and passionate about food. This test is recorded enabling him to make proper decisions about the individual.

The second test involves a work ability testing, these test are applied to determine an element of a position. The applicant’s ability on the job is determined through this test, which is applied by Jamie. This test involves determining whether applicants are able to express themselves through their sensory experiences. This test involves recruits being given food they had never eaten before and asked to express themselves about the food. Through this selection stage, Jamie was able to reduce his recruits y half and only 30 remained.

The third stage-involves recruits being taught to cook a certain dish, all the stages were explained to them and they were asked to do it themselves. This is a cognitive ability test stragegy, which was aimed at determining whether the individuals were capable of solving problems and learning from experience. It is also in some was a work ability test.

In such a position, I would have applied other tests, which a crucial to successful selection process, these test would have included integrity tests, which determines whether an individual would engage in illegal activities, this is evident from the case study where applicants failed to attend classes while others were involved in violent behavior. Drug testing would also be appropriate in this case and finally medical tests which would determine the health of an individual given that they will handling food in a restaurant.


Jamie uses unique retention strategies in his organization, he uses the development and career opportunity strategy, this motivates the young selected applicants for their chance to advance in their career as chefs, and he provides them with the necessary skills and knowledge and finds them jobs in high-ranking restaurants. This is how he maintains his selected applicants at his disposal. (Suzanne Dibble, 2013, pp 123). I would also use such a retention strategy combining them with other strategies such as financial strategies such as bonuses that help in retaining employees in the organization.







Task 2:

Leadership, motivation and management strategies:

Leadership style and strategies:

Edwin Locke (2013) states that leadership is distinguish from management in that a leader has a vision, purpose, mission and goal. On the other hand, management only involves implementing the vision.  (Edwin Locke, 2013, pp 3). From the case study, Jamie has a vision, mission and goal. His vision was to motivate young individuals to become chefs although they were unqualified and without skills. Jamie also implemented his vision by expanding his organization; this means that Jamie is both a good leader and a manager.

Leadership according to Sadler P. (2012) is an act of influencing tasks in order to achieve certain set goals. He states that leadership can be broken down to four main parts namely; leadership as an influencing process, leadership as a process involving interaction between followers and the leader, leadership is influenced by the situation where leadership takes place and that leadership has an outcome in achieving a set goal.

The case study indicates that Jamie influences his recruits by motivating them and encouraging them to learn and become skilled chefs. He also interacts with them and his leadership has a goal, which has been achieved over the years. More importantly, his leadership style is influenced by the situation and that is at hand.

There are various leadership styles and there is evidence to show that Jamie’s leadership style is influenced by these situations. Kippenberger (2011) states that a transformation leader is a leader who is charismatic and influences his followers in achieving a goal, from the case study, Jamie is a charismatic leader who influences recruits to become chefs and achieve their career goals. Jamie also uses transactional leadership style, Kippenberger (2011) also states that a transactional leader use rewards to punish or deter behavior; it is evident that Jamie applies punishment by suspending recruits who do not follow rules and exhibit deviant behavior.

Jamie can also be considered an autocratic leader, he sets the rules and gives orders on what should be done and how it should be done, his recruits are expected to follow his directions or else be punished. this is evident where Jamie does not in any way consult with his recruits when making decision, he also expects them to pass the tests that he gives them or else be opted out of the selection process. Bonnici (2014)

Jamie did not know his trainees, he had to be more autocratic, as discussed above, an autocratic leader sets the rules and gives orders on what to be done. Jamie’s autocratic leadership style is evident where he decides on what test to apply and who gets to join the team. After knowing his trainees, he is more relaxed and puts greater autonomy to trainees, in this situation, he applies situational leadership style whereby trainees are allowed to make their own decision and run activities on their own.

In order to manage the trainees more effectively, Jamie should also apply the bureaucratic leadership style, this style entails coming up with policies and procedures that will e used in decision making. Trainees would then be guided by these procedures and policies. When the trainees find themselves in situations that are not covered by the policies and procedure, then this leadership style proposes that they should consult with the leader above; in this case, they will consult Jamie. This leadership is more appropriate in actions that require routine; therefore, this leadership style will fit well in Jamie’s case.


Task 3:

Teamwork theory:

Tuckman’s teamwork theory provides an explanation on how Jamie was able to achieve teamwork in his organization. Tuckman’s theory states that teamwork evolves through four stages, the first stage is forming, the second storming, the third is norming and the third is performing. The team that Jamie built passed all these stages, which are evident in the case study. (Michael West,  2012 )

The forming stage is evident in the case study where Jamie selects a team of 15 candidates to train, it is evident that team members avoided conflicts and there was minimal confrontation or conflict. The second stage, which is storming, is evident from the case study where team members disagree and offer different opinions, it is evident that there was a conflict that merged among the team’s members and this can be viewed as the second stage of teamwork building. (Michael West,  2012 )

The third stage is norming, which is characterized by assignment of roles, this occurs when storming completes and the group is ready to work together and perform their roles. This is evident from the case study where conflicts end and the candidates are ready to perform their duties. The final stage, which is performing, is evident in the case study where Jamie succeeds in training his candidates and they can now work together as a team. (Michael West,  2012 )


Belbin's team role identifies how Jamie could use this model with his trainees to improve team work. According to this model, indivudals can be classified into 3 borad categories which include action oriented roles, people orietnetd roles and thought oriented roles.
Action oriented roles includes the shapers, these are individuals who other to improve, these individuals stimulate other to change and solve problems. A weakness of these individuals is that they may be argumentative and therefore may offend others. The other role is the completer; these are individuals who ensure that tasks are completed thoroughly. The weakness in these individuals is that they may unnecessary worry about the completion of tasks. The other role is the implementers; who get tasks done. The weakness with these individuals is that they might resist change because they are inflexible.

People oriented roles include the coordinator and these are individuals who guide the team members, their weakness is that they might be manipulative. The other role is the team worker, these are individuals who get work done by ensuring that all team members are working effectively, and their weakness is that they might be indecisive. The other is the resource investigator, these are curious and investigative indivudals, they explore the available options and their weakness is that they may lose enthusiasm quickly.

Thought oriented roles include the plant role, which are individuals who are creative and innovative, their weakness they are poor communicators. The other role is the monitor or evaluator, these are individuals who are thinkers and offer strategic approaches to tasks, their weakness are that they do not motivate others. The other role is the specialist, these are individuals who have specialized knowledge and their weakness is that they may limit their contribution to the team.

Jamie should use this model by investigating each trainee and determining the roles that they best fit in the team, in this way he can determine which role is missing from the team. After determining which role is missing, he can then select a team member to assume that role or bring in a new team member to fit the role. By assessing the various weaknesses of each team member, Jamie will also initiate actions that would improve the performance of these team members.














Task 4:

Performance evaluation:

Herman (2010) defined performance evaluation as the continuous process that involves identifying, measuring and evaluating the performance of employees and then aligning them to the organization goals. There is evidence from the case study that Jamie indentifies and measures the performance of his trainees, from the case study these form of evaluation starts during the recruitment and selection process where the trainees are given three tests which determines their performance. There is also evidence that the selected trainees are tested regularly and have an option of taking tests when they fail. (Herman, 2010)

Performance evaluation is important in that it ensures that employees are properly utilized in an organization, its main purpose is to measure performance against the expected performance, it also helps identify training needs and professional development, and it helps in identifying the skills and abilities of employees for the purpose of promotion and reward. Jamie will benefit from performance evaluation in that it ensures control of work being done, enhances the motivation and productivity of employees. Performance evaluation also helps employees to identify the objectives and goals of the organization, through performance evaluation, employees’ needs to be recognized are met whereby high performing individuals are rewarded, it also helps in identifying areas of improvement in the work process and also areas that require employee skills and knowledge development. (Herman, 2010)


The expectancy theory helps in analyzing the evaluation process evident in the case study, this theory states that individuals adjust behavior based on anticipated satisfaction. It is evident that the trainees adjust their performance due to the anticipated employment opportunity they will get when they successfully complete their training. Jamie will benefit from evaluation based on this theory, it is evident that through evaluation and rewarding performance will motivate his trainees to meet objectives and therefore improve the organization efficiency. (Herman, 2010)

The goal setting states that when organization goals are set, they play an important role in motivating employees to perform better. The case study indicates that Jamie set goals that would ensure that his trainees achieve the desired outcome; He sets goals that ensure that the unskilled and inexperienced recruits will end up being some of the best chefs in London. This is an indication that Jamie has been successful in setting achievable goals, motivating his recruits and achieving objectives.  (Herman, 2010)

Jamie should also come up with new way to monitor his trainees such as walking around them as they work, providing regular supervision every week , observing each trainee performance on a regular basis, organizing group meetings aimed at collecting their views and briefing them. Jamie will benefit from performance evaluation in that it ensures control of work, enhances the motivation and productivity,  helps employees to identify the objectives and goals, employees’ needs to be recognized are met , it helps identify process improvement areas and employee skills needs. (Herman, 2010)






Aguinis Herman (2010). Performance Management. New Jersey: ABC books

Charles Hill  (2007). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. New York: Wiley and sons publishing

Charles A. Bonnici (2014). Creating a Successful Leadership Style: Principles of Personal Strategic. Oxford: Oxford university press.

David M. Bridgeland ( 2008). Business Modeling: A Practical Guide to Realizing Business. New York: Black well publishing

Edwin Locke (2013). The Essence of Leadership: The Four Keys to Leading Successfully. Oxford: Lexington books

Michael A. West( 2012). Effective Teamwork: Practical Lessons from Organizational. Boston: Boston university press.

Philip Sadler (2012). Leadership. Sterling: Kogan page publishing. Boston: Boston university press.

Ronald Sims (2010). Reforming Human Resource Management Agency. New Jersey: McGraw Hill.

Suzanne Dibble (2013). Keeping Your Valuable Employees: Retention Strategies for Your Organization. New York: Prentice hall

Tony Kippenberger (2011). Leadership Styles. New York: Wiley and sons publishing

Published in case study
Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:56

Reasons why stock market may decline



Reasons why stock market may decline



For every company to survive in the market, it must have modalities to ensure its stocks remain competitive. However, this is one of the most unpredictable markets. This owes to a variety of factors as indicated by Glenn Curtis in his article Top 5 reasons for a stock slide. In this article, Glenn asserts there are various factors that contribute to changes in stock market most of which cannot be predetermined. Slav Fedorov in the reasons for stock market decline asserts the causes moves in trends that are major, intermediate or short term. In regard to the two articles, the trends in the market share are determined by competition, investors offloading their shares and poor financial performance among other factors.

Changing trends in the market indicate that prices in stock market change considerably. This owes to varying factor through which the business is operating. It includes among others factors of competition, customer services, pricing and quality of the products on offer.

In the findings of Eadie and Alison (1986), the bigger the market share of a company the more likely it is for the share price of the company to appreciate. This is brought around by the fact that growth in customer base increases the revenues of a company that in effect translates to overall growth of the company. Of importance however, is to note that in order to achieve a niche in the market, there requires massive investment and marketing procedures that will ensure the target group is reached adequately as well as efficient provision of the products of the company.

How competition affects the share price

Farris, Paul W.; Neil T. Bendle; Phillip E. Pfeifer; David J. Reibstein (2010) on marketing metric states there are various ways through which measures to get the performance of  a particular company can be measured. In what is considered as the common language in business all these measures used by the marketing accountability standards board. It is in the same perspective that J. Scott Armstrong and Kesten C. Greene (2007) in his journal article "Competitor-oriented Objectives: The Myth of Market Share"  he outlines the various strategies that a company management requires to put in place to ensure they are able to gain competitively in the share market. This is further asserted by another journal of marketing research as provided by J. Scott Armstrong and Fred Collopy (1996). The article titled "Competitor Orientation: Effects of Objectives and Information on Managerial Decisions and Profitability" various steps that may be undertaken to improve on the performance of the company and other strategies that may be put in place are scrutinized. This is done in respect to ensure that each and every of the policies put in place will come with positive and negative effects and in such a way gain an insight on what is best for the company in question and the possible repercussions.  Where the company fails to take the competitive advantage in its products, it means the competitors will have a higher advantage in the market and thereby resulting in low revenues. This in effect discourages investors resulting to massive disposal of shares held by investors and as well attracting fewer investors. In such way, the prices of shares tend to fall.

Effect of pricing on shares

Research finding also leads to a great effect on the market shares. This is more likely if the results are released on a negative tone after the company releases its financial reports. In the journal article, “what is the impact of research on stock prices” this often affects the mode of thinking mostly on short term investors who are in the stock market to make quick profits. While this information may not easily available to the investors, the press and the research firm more often releases part or whole of the information to the general public more so if the company in question is a large public company. With growing customer base, the prices of shares tend to grow upwards. This owes to the fact that potential investor read signs of future profitability in the amounts of shares invested. While market forces dictate the price of the shares in the market. The management remains under responsibility to set the precedent on the best price of the company shares. This should be done after an extensive and articulate research has been undertaken to ascertain the performance and possible reception by potential investors

Customer service effect

The customer is one of the most valuable assets in a business organization. Adequate customer satisfaction enhances the growth of the business and as well ensure there is strategic development pattern. In a company, there are varying categories of customers who include the consumers of the company products and the prospective investors. All these customers require to be served adequately to enhance growth of the company. This includes among other factors ensuring they are provided with appropriate information regarding the growth and performance of the company and its products in the market. This is clearly indicated by Hultens, Staffan and Molleryd, Bengt (28 June 2000), in the "Entrepreneurs, Innovations and Market Processes in the Evolution of the Swedish Mobile Telecommunications Industry". Where they assert that in the industry it depends on customers to have the company grow. In such respect failure to satisfy the customers may either lead to decline in overall growth of the company from lack of sales to offsetting of shares by the existing shareholders.

Effects of quality in share pricing

The share portfolio in a company determines its strength or weakness. This is further enabled by the aspect where the company us able to produce high quality products and in such create its niche in the market (H.A. Simonand C.P. Bonini, 1958). This not only make the company strong but also enhances the price the viability of attracting new and existing investors an in such way improve the performance of a given company in the market. As such, the quality of products or services offered by the company give a clear indication on the much strength the company has to sustain itself in the prevailing market and in such way capability to attract investor in form of shareholders  (Givon, M. Mahajan, V. and Muller, E. 1997).


Further growth in the mobile industry, is still projected to remain on the upward trend in the coming years. However, current technological advances dictate that the company reinvests heavily to ensure they are able to keep up with the changing technological trends. This is further enhanced by ensuring an effective customer service team that will be in a position to interact fully with the clients and as in such a way able to ascertain the need s of the client and use it as a platform for more creative products.









  1. Wemerfelt,(1984). "Consumers With differing Reaction Speeds, Scale Advantages and Industry Structure," European Economic Review. Vol. 24.
  2. Wernerfelt, (1985). "The Dynamics of Prices and Market Shares Over the Product Life Cycle," Management Science, Vol 31'

Boston Consulting Group, Perspectives on Experience (1972)

Browning, Jonathan (18 June 2012). "Vodafone Gets Approval for C&W Bid as Orbis Drops Opposition". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 11 December 2012.

C.Y.Y. Woo and A.C. Cooper, (1981)."strategies of  Effective Low Share Businesses, "Strategic Management Journal, Vol.E.

C.Y.Y. Woo and A.C. Cooper, (1982). "The Surprising Case for Low Market Share," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 60, No 6.

H.A. Simonand C.P. Bonini, (1958). "The Size Distribution of Business Firms,"  The American Economic Review.

Hultens, Staffan and Molleryd, Bengt (28 June 2000), "Entrepreneurs, Innovations and Market Processes in the Evolution of the Swedish Mobile Telecommunications Industry". Retrieved 9 September 2013

Farris, Paul W.; Neil T. Bendle; Phillip E. Pfeifer; David J. Reibstein (2010). Marketing Metrics: The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0137058292. The Marketing Accountability Standards Board (MASB) endorses the definitions, purposes, and constructs of classes of measures that appear in Marketing Metrics as part of its ongoing Common Language in Marketing Project.

F,M, Sherer, (1970). Industrial Market Structure and Economic Performance.

Givon, M. Mahajan, V. and Muller, E. (1997). "Assessing the Relationship between the User-Based Market Share and Unit Sales-Based Market Share for Pirated Software Brands in Competitive Markets". Technological forecasting and social change 55 (2): 131–144. doi:10.1016/S0040-1625(96)00181-3

Hasell, Nick (30 June 1999). "Scramble for Vodafone as blue chips retreat". The Times (Times Newspapers).

  1. Scott Armstrong and Kesten C. Greene (2007). "Competitor-oriented Objectives: The Myth of Market Share". International Journal of Business 12 (1): 116–134. ISSN 1083-4346.
  2. Scott Armstrong and Fred Collopy (1996). "Competitor Orientation: Effects of Objectives and Information on Managerial Decisions and Profitability". Journal of Marketing Research (American Marketing Association) 23: 188–199.

Kevin Godbold (2014).How will Vodafone group PLc fare in 2014.

Krause, Reinhardt (8 June 1999). "Vodafone's Quest Begins With AirTouch Alliance". Investor's Business Daily. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2007.

  1. Haspeslagh, (1982). "Portfolio Planning: Uses and Limits," Harvard Business Review, Yol.60, No. I.

Reguly, Eric (20 November 1996). "Vodafone pockets Peoples Phone". The Times (Times Newspapers).

R.G. Hamermesh,(1978), "Strategies for Low Market Businesses, "Harvard Business Review, Vol. 56, No. 3.

R,P. Rumelt and R. Wensley(1981)."In Search of the Market Share Effect," in Proceedings of the 41st Meeting of the Academy of Management.


Published in business
Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:55

Richard Lewis Cultural Types Model

Richard Lewis Cultural Types Model


International negotiations normally integrate different cultures. In conducting varying types of business calls for the need to seek out models through which such different cultures can be put together to ensure that meaningful steps are realized. Globally, there are over 200 different cultures and more to this each has various cultural layers that are defined by gender, religion, wealth, education, and social groupings. In conduct of negotiations it is imperative that all these differences are accounted for in place of using personal intuitions.

It is in this regard that Richard Lewis in his book “when cultures collide” defined three main models through which a positive approach can be made. These include the linear active, multi-active and the reactive. While cultural approaches in negotiation may have similar characteristics, they also differ in some aspects depending on the community which is involved in negotiations. Among other key factors that require to be considered in such negotiation crisis is the prevailing crisis within the community. The book by Lewis indicates that under psychological stress, there is a greater tendency to revert to cultural values in negotiations. This same goes when technological factors are put in place and this becomes a greater factor in linear task oriented approaches where competition takes the centre stage.

To fully understand the aspects of the model to apply consideration of the technological advances of the 20th century is paramount. This has driven more communities to be intertwined on the global communication grid and as such sharing of information and ideals of different communities. A critical understanding of the works of Lewis  give a clear outline of using different models and the prospective outcomes in use of each.

Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:54

Nursing theory

Nursing theory

Nursing theory is a procedure followed as the basis of action or is an organized framework of concepts and purposes designed to guide the practice of nursing (Powers 2011).

How do nurses utilize theories in their practice?

  • Assessment

Nurses use a systematic and dynamic way of data collection and analyzation about a client rather than static as their first step to deliver nursing care. Assessment does not require physiological data only, of course, psychological, spiritual, sociocultural, and life-style as well.

  • The nursing process

Nursing process requires one to be assertive, good approach in solving problem, identification, and treatment of patient problems. This is the common virtue that unites all different type of nurses who work at different areas. This provides an organized frame work for excise of nursing, and actions that nurses bring to patients.

  • Diagnosis

This is the nurse’s clinical knowledge about the patient’s condition to actual health problems. The diagnosis reflects when a patient is in pain as well as other problems including, poor nutrition, anxiety among others.

  • Planning

Based on diagnosis and assessment, nurses usually set achievable and measurable goals for the patient that might include number of times a patient is supposed to be changed from bed to chair a day. However, nurse considers the nutrition by eating a balance diet in small quantity or more frequent.

  • Implementation

Continuous nurse care for clients in hospital and in preparation for release ensures implementation of nurse care.

  • Evaluation

Evaluation is required for both patients and effectiveness of nursing care.

Did you recognize a nursing theory? If so which one and where did you first learn about nursing theorists?

Yes, Grand nursing theory and in specific self-care deficit nursing theory coined by Dorothea Orem.




















Powers, B. A., & Knapp, T. R. (2011).Dictionary of nursing theory and research.New York, NY: Springer       Pub.Co.


Published in Nursing
Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:53





Question 1: International businesses adopt technology to enhance effectiveness. Why is leadership in a digital world more challenging for managers?

With technological advancement and globalization, leadership function becomes complicated. This is because technology development not only changes the manner in which people do business but also the manner in which business people communicate. This means that managers have to deal with different modes of communication. For instance, managers do not have to rely on face-to-face communication but hold virtual meetings, which are considered fast and sometimes more efficient. Further, with increase in technology, managers have to deal with culturally diverse employees. This implies that the managers have to understand the mode of communication that would be effective for all the employees. Global managers are also required to master their interpersonal skills so that they can address racial conflict issues occurring among the employees in the workplace. The leader should understand that Western leadership, which is most preferred, does not apply to all cultural groups such as the Japanese who do not advocate for individualism as the Westerners do. 

Question 2: This unit is about motivating and leading, but there are dramatic differences and conflicts in how to motivate in different countries. How can a manager motivate people using the needs hierarchy in the international context? What are the conflicting motivational techniques in Western-Russian joint ventures?

A manager needs to understand that different employees from around the globe derive different need satisfaction levels from their jobs. He should thus arrange the needs as the employees would wish they were satisfied. For instance, Russians are required to work very hard to meet their responsibilities while Westerners work hard for personal needs. A Western manager would bring different leadership attributes to Russian employees in a Western-Russian joint venture when compared to a Russian manager to Russian employees. The Western manager would expect the Russian employees to take initiative and air their suggestions, take mistakes as learning aids and never repeat them, be future oriented, and think of the firm as an incorporated entity. On the other hand, Russian manager would expect the Russian employees to carry on their tasks as expected but obeying the set rules, never commit any mistakes because they are not allowed and punishable once they happen, concentrate on the present and not forget the past, and adhere to one’s job description without interfering with the jobs of others.  

Question 3: What are the culturally contingent leadership behaviors and attributes? What are the positive leadership behaviors and traits that are universally accepted that facilitate leadership effectiveness? What are the negative leadership behaviors and traits that are universally accepted that create impediments to leadership effectiveness? Why are those behaviors viewed to be positive or negative?

The culturally contingent leadership behaviors and attributes are charisma, team, self-protective, participative, humane, and autonomous. The positive leadership behaviors and traits that are universally accepted that facilitate leadership effectiveness are trustworthiness, inspirational and motivating, communicative, and visionary. The negative leadership behaviors and traits that are universally accepted that create impediments to leadership effectiveness are being asocial and a loner, dictatorial, and non-cooperative. These behaviors are viewed to be positive or negative dependent on the relationship they maintain between the employees and the leaders. When the leaders have a vision, communicate effectively, and are motivating and inspirational, they are considered positive behaviors. On the other hand, when the behaviors maintain a harsh relationship between the employees and the leaders, they are considered negative. A good example is a leader who is dictatorial since he does not require the input of his followers but rather coerces his followers to follow his orders.   

Question 4: In designing an appropriate reward system, understanding culture differences in motivation is important. What are the five most prominent reward categories, and how does culture impact these five categories?

            The five most prominent reward categories are financial, professional, social status, career, and job content. Culture affects these five categories because of the beliefs held. For instance, employees from collectivist cultures including Taiwan, Japan, and Korea cannot respond effectively to a reward system applied in the Western culture, which is mostly merit-based and thus would disrupt the corporate and harmonious culture. Work has different meanings for different cultures and therefore the person designing the reward system should understand this. For some, work would mean being into contact with others, prestige/ status, a way to remain occupies, a manner to serve the society, means of satisfaction, and for income. Similarly, the Western culture would be motivated more by tasks that are challenging while other cultures such as Russians would be more reliant on the leader and adhere to all laws without any questioning. 




Herdesky, H. (2011). International management: Managing across the borders and cultures. Upper Saddle River: The Pearson Education Company.

Published in Essays
Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:52

Pressure Ulcers

Pressure Ulcers


Pressure ulcers occur when external tissues are exerted with excess pressure, which is not adequately relieved. The tissues that are exerted with pressure are mostly due to bony prominence. It is a common occurrence that pressure ulcers mostly inflicts the heel and the sacrum. The outcome of the pressure ulcers at the heel has some immense consequences, because it is expensive to treat and it is very painful, and mobility of the victim is severely limited. Older adults have increased chances of being diagnosed with heel pressure ulcers. Others who are likely to suffer from the disease include those who are paralyzed, incontinent, debilitated, and those who are suffering from metastatic cancer. Others include patients who are in the intensive care unit (ICU), those on ventilator, and those with diabetes mellitus. All these have similar level of peripheral vascular compromise, which adversely affect blood circulation, which can contribute to neuropathy and deformities on the foot. This report describes a program for the management of pressure ulcers among the older adults.

Clear Innovation goals and outcomes

            Based on what researchers have found, it is obvious that all the devices are not 100% effective in reducing the tissue interface pressure to the minimum level. The devices normally produce some limited protection on the heel against bony prominences, shear, and friction. This is mostly when the patient is lying on the side. To some degree, the foam boats are effective because the exterior surface aides in reducing friction. If the foam boot is more rigid, there is a high potential of developing pressure areas in the heel plantar surface or the lateral ankles. The booty type devices can reduce internal and external rotation, but have limited potential but can only manage to reduce the rotation only if they are more rigid (Dennis, Bowen & Cho, 2012). The air boot weighs less and does aid in lessening the internal and external rotation, but cannot completely prevent it. Feet sweat in air bags, thus these bags are required to have venting holes to enhance air circulation. Boots have surfaces that make them easier to slip around on the bed surface; however, these allow more positioning checks. Straps ensure the boots stay on, but the straps should not be very tight. Tight straps can cause unnecessary pressure on the dorsum of the feet or the lower leg. Therefore, the boots should be removed at regular intervals, and allow time for the feet to be assessed. Nurses should also check the pressure redistributing device to evaluate whether it is worn correctly (Graff, Bryant &Beinlich, 2000).

Detailed design

Among the treatment procedures being carried out on patients suffering from heel pressure ulcers, or the vulnerable aged adults, repositioning or turning the patient frequently is a recommended procedure aimed at preventing the occurrence of the ailment. Defloor et al. (2005) found that a turning schedule on either viscoelastic foam mattresses or standard mattress proved to be effective after following a preset schedule.

In regards to the heel pressure, it is imperative that this is controlled by use of pressure relief devices. Among the old people who are at risk of heel pressure ulcers, it is important that such individuals use pressure-redistribution device. This device plays a critical role in ensuring that the heel tissue does not breakdown, and remains protected from the adverse effects of the pressure, shear forces and friction (Black, 2004). Patients with boot type devices are mostly those who have been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, or those with neuropathy; those with limited or poor mobility, and those who are immobile while recovering. There are varieties of boot type devices for all the diverse clients intending to distribute their pressure, and thus play it safe for their heels.

Implementation steps

Most of the medications used for treatment of heel pressure ulcers are similar to the ones used for prevention of the problem. Before the health care providers begin to carry out treatment, it is important for them to perform some risk assessment on the person. Among those who require risk assessments include those with mobility problems or their mobility is impaired, have impaired sensation, are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, have foot deformities, or their lower extremities have circulation problems. It is unfortunate that most of the assessment scales lack the required parameters required for evaluation of the non-movement in the lower extremity as a result; there could be some instances where one can suffer a leg fracture, but the risk of pressure ulcer when assessed could be lacking. More so, the classification of those at risk is not standardized. Nonetheless, most scholars agree that the older adults who have suffered leg or hip fractures are among those who are at risk. Therefore, appropriate preventive measures should be put in place to guarantee full recovery until they have made full recovery, even if formal risk assessment does not identify the risk (Gilcreast, et al, 2005).

Evaluation process

It is important that full assessment is done on older patients to evaluate their level of risk when they are being admitted to a facility. The patients who are a higher risk should be monitored closely and frequently. It is required that those in the acute care should be assessed every 12 hours in order to evaluate any significant change in their condition.  For those in the long care, they should be assessed every week, but that can be changed depending on the conditions of the patient. Nurses can use the heel pressure ulcer assessment tool to assess the patient risk level. Upon carrying out the assessments, patients whose have damaged skin or reddened skin should be handled with care, and heel protectors should be used to prevent further damage of the heel.

            The focus for the treatment and prevention of the heel pressure ulcers is the connection between the heel vasculature and the external pressure. In order to prevent cases of heel ulcers from arising, comprehensive strategies should be employed, especially among the vulnerable populations. These may include identifying the comorbidities that comprise of skin assessment, the dietary intake, early use of pressure distribution devices, and use of evidence based interventions, among other interventions



Black, J. (2004). Preventing heel pressure ulcers.Nursing, 34, 17.

Defloor, T.,DeBacquer, D., &Grypdonck, M.H. (2005). The effect of various combinations of turning and pressure reducing devices on the incidence of pressure ulcers.International Journal of Nursing Studies, 42, 37-46.

Dennis, M., Bowen, W. T., & Cho, L. (2012). Mechanisms of clinical signs.Chatswood, NSW: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Gilcreast, D.M.,Warren, J. B., Yoder, L. H., Clark, J. J., Wilson, J. A., & Mays, M. Z.(2005). Research comparing three heel ulcer-prevention devices. Journal of Wound Ostomy Continence,32, 112-120.

Graff, M.K., Bryant, K.,&Beinlich, N. (2000). Preventing heel breakdown.Orthopedic Nurse, 19, 63-69.





Published in Health essays
Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:50

Multinational Companies
















Multinational Companies




Multinational Companies

Employees from different countries have different approaches to company norms and employment. This is as a result of the management culture and beliefs that different people hold. This calls for different leadership styles in different countries depending on people’s management culture. Multicultural education is essential for people holding management levels in multinational companies. It is not necessarily that a company appoints locals to fill the management positions but rather appoints experienced management team. Experience in this case means managers who are able to manage effectively in the country they are appointed. Different leadership styles and skills are required for employees from different countries. While some employees would require flexible working hours, others would wish for tight schedules.

The Middle East employees like struggling to make it in life. They engage in all sorts of jobs. While there is are laws containing bill of rights to protect employees by guaranteeing minimum wages and minimum working hours, the issues of working long hours are overlooked. This means that working overtime in Japan should not necessarily be compensated because the labor laws do not protect it. Middle East workers feel guilty when they are not working. It is argued that Japanese do not have patience with lazy people, people who break promises, and those who do not work to their best. Keeping promises should be ensured through working hard. According to them, poor service is regarded as an individual insult (Mohwald, 2002, p. 13-5).

The Asian workers differ from European workers who view work as a way of reaching a certain goal. For Asians, working is an end in itself and is thus considered as an existential existence. This implies reaching one goal should be a start of the next one. Achieving one goal through working will only mean more working to achieve the next and hence a chain of working hard to achieve more goals. Children are taught in their early ages that they should work hard because this is a virtue. They should therefore help with pleasure and enthusiasm. Asian employees are go-getting and find themselves naturally working extremely hard (Shinohara, 2009, p. 28-31). This way, they provide their clients and their employers with the unsurpassed service.

Some Middle East citizens are well educated with blue-collar employees from Asia matching with engineering graduates in European countries. This is ensured through both education and training once in the job industry. Further, training is essential and is done via apprenticeship-like systems. Trainees are encouraged to ‘learn and steal’ the taught skills from the masters. This is done to make the trainees as competent as the masters and ensure that the employees do their work perfectly. Employees should continuously train in different skills and make sure the understand the trained skills (Deresky, 2011). 

The recommended working hours for Asians are 46.5 hours a week. Initially, the employees were entitled to eight hours on weekdays and four working hours on Saturday. This has changed to off on Saturdays but most employees find themselves working on Saturdays. Additionally, many employees like working overtime with no extra compensation. Even with the promise of three-week holiday for many employees, many do not take their time off but rather continue working. Surveys prove that workers do not have much free time.

While the employees are entitled to paid vacation and holidays, they do not have people to take on their job positions because of the decreasing working age population in the country. It is also proven that with salaried men being used to self-sacrifice and hard work, they are guilty of taking time off when other employees are working. People are only comfortable and relaxed when they take time off for funerals, weddings, and other important events. Taking time off work would make one feel guilty and uncomfortable.


Deresky, H. (2011). International management: Managing across borders and cultures. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Möhwald, U, 2002, Changing attitudes towards gender equality in Japan and Germany, München, Iudicium.

Shinohara, C, 2008, Equal Employment Opportunity Policies and Attitudes Toward Gender-roles in Japan Since 1985, Minnesota, ProQuest.


Published in Research papers
Page 2 of 8