Items filtered by date: December 2021

Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:49

U.S. citizenship via a CR-1 Visa


U.S. citizenship via a CR-1 Visa



Part I: U.S. Citizenship via a CR-1 Visa

            In principle, the conditional resident (CR) visa is applicable to US citizen who has been married to an alien for less than two years. The fact that it is conditional means that if the marriage goes beyond the first two years, the alien should apply for an IR1, which makes the alien a permanent resident. However, the process involves fees, which amount to $728. In essence, after the two years elapse the alien has to apply for an adjustment that costs $1,010. In addition, it is notable that the process could take weeks to process, which means increased visits to the embassy. Depending on the distance from the applicant’s residence and the embassy, the process could amount to anything between $1,000 to 1,500. Although this might seem to be expensive, it is worth because one would live with his or her loved one in close quarters. The majority of embassies take an average of up to six weeks to process the visa. Although it normally takes time, it is important to provide only facts in the application because any form of lies leads to severe punishments (US Visas, 2015).

Part II: Business Visa

For people involved in a business, they apply for B-1 visas, which do not authorize them to be involved in any gainful employment in the United States. However, the visitor is allowed to transact any form of legal business while in the country. The application fee for this visa is $160 although there are other charges, which are associated with travelling to visit the embassy for interviews. It is advisable to provide only accurate information even on trivial matters because it could lead to a jail sentence or life ban to visit the US. In effect, the information provided should always be based on the truth (US Visas, 2015).



US Visas. (2015). “US Department of State: Bureau of Consular Affairs." Visitor Visa. Retrieved 16 April 2015 from


Published in Research papers
Wednesday, 22 December 2021 06:48

A View to a Kill

"A View to a Kill"

“A view to kill” is the seventh and last film in the James bond film series to star roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent and the fourteenth film in the series over all. In this movie James bond is pitted against the French industrialist Max Zorin who wants to control the computer microchips market by causing an explosion in Silicon Valley in California. The film is directed by Albert broccoli and Michael Wilson. The film stars Roger Moore, Tanya Roberts, Grace Jones, Christopher Walken, and Patrick Macnee.

This film starts when Bond comes back from the USSR with a  computer chip that he discovered or recovers from a mission to retrieve the body of agent 003. However, this chip is not a normal computer chip because this chip can withstand a nuclear electromagnetic pulse that is capable of  destroying a computernormal chip. Bond and his superiors visit Ascot Racecourse to observe the company's owner, Max Zorin. While at the track, Zorin's horse miraculously wins the race and Godfrey Tibbett, a horse trainer, believes Zorin's horse was given drugs. However, when screened prior to the race, it did not show any signs of doping. Surprisingly, Zorin may only seem to be an ordinary and innocent businessman but in real sense Zorin is secretly planning to set off a powerful  earthquake in San Andreas, California which he is sure willl wipe out all of Silicon Valley.

Apart from  Zorin, Bond  is also faced with a daunting task of dealing with  May Day an equally menacing companion of Zorin. Bond will have to accomplish this  whilst dragging Stacy Sutton along for the ride. Another challenger that Bond has to deal with is  Scarpine, who is also a dangerous henchman of Zorin. In this film, Bond has to use all available resources and skills that he has in order to be able to deal with Zorin anf stop him from avccomplishing his mission. The film climaxes with a fight on top of the golden gate bridge in California where bond emerges victorious.


The film is a perfect portrayal of power struggles in form of gender, class and race. This action-comedy film illustrates this through the use of Zorin-A wealthy French industrialist, Bond-a well trained spy, and May Day, a black woman but exceedingly dangerous  when it comes to martial arts. From the early beginning, it is clear that although the film does entertain the audience, it brings out the power struggles that exist between people of different gender, race and social class. Each one of the actors wants to portray their strength in their own personal ways.

The different film chapters show how creative people have used film to give us experiences that we value. We will examine the principles and techniques that give this film its power to tell stories, express emotions, and trigger ideas while at the same time keeping us entertained.  The characters and actions of the people in the film also play an important role in helping us to understand the key power struggle concepts in the film. For instance, we see that James Bond is an elderly clever and mysterious agent who is able to do things that other agents or his enemies are not able to match up. For instance, he manages to escape an ambush from Russian agents when he goes to retrieve the microchip at the beginning of the film. Secondly, we can see that although May Day is the girlfriend and key henchman of Zorin, James Bond convinces her to go with him to bed. This is a tricky situation because in such businesses or illegal operations that Zorin is involved in it looks quite tricky for someone to take such a risk knowing that they could easily be killed.

On the other hand, we see that the main antagonist, Zorin is also a very cunning businessperson. For instance, when he is explaining how he will make millions by flattening Silicon Valley and having the only supply of computer microchips, Zorin says that the “Main Strike” will be the ultimate choice. However, when one of the “to be partners,” decides to back off he is thrown out of the airship by May Day. This action makes the viewer wonder whether the “main Strike” indeed meant something else. This is because from the actions of Zorin it might appear that, the main strike may not be on Silicon Valley but on investors who may be willing to back down on the deal.

In addition, we see that Zorin is very clever because he uses his wit to know the real identity of James bond including the plan he had of killing him. First, he lures James Bond into his office and searches a database for possible matches of James Bond. After positively identifying him, he makes a plan on how he will kill him by pretending that they will have gone horse riding. Such skilful plans of action can only be present or acquired by people with stakes and this power struggle seems to be rather mental than physical.  

            The day after Bond sleeps with May Day Zorin invites him to his office and asks him whether he slept well. Noticing that Zorin knows about it Bond replies by saying that he was rather restless but he was finally able to wake up. This is another indication of the power struggle strategies that people use to answer questions to confirm the accusation while at the same time not being explicit about it.

 In another incidence when Zorin Shoots the mayor he tells him that James Bond and Sutton had come to kill him and they accidentally perished in the fire. At this instance, the mayor tells Zorin that if that were the case then he would be …before he finishes the statement Zorin shoots him and finishes the statement that he would be “dead”. We can also see that Zorin is not willing to lose at any instance and he goes at any length to ensure that he achieves what he wants. This is also evidenced in his horseracing involvements. In this case, Zorin ensures that his horses are boosted with adrenaline to ensure that they outperform those of his competitors. This ensures that Zorin will continue to reap profits from horse racing because he is already aware of the winning horses by the time he places his bets.

One thing that is clear in the movie is the fact that although the cast belongs to different cultural backgrounds they all seems to fit in well with people from other cultures as is portrayed in the movie by the director although racial and class boundaries are clearly visible.


            Regardless of the power struggles that exist between the actors from different classes, races, and gender, it is clear that only the wisest of them win. Thus, we see that at the end although Zorin has much money and ability to hire professional killers, he is not able to accomplish his mission because in the course of the film, people switch sides causing other people’s plans to falter. Thus, in summary we can say that regardless of the fact that there exist power struggles between people from different cultural, racial, or class settings, it is a single person’s hard work and determination that can really determine who ends up victorious.





International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures

Question 1

            Alliances are formed between two or more companies where they agree to share technology, human resource, and financial resources to improve their performance. However, alliances in sensitive areas pose serious challenges to the firms because of the mistrust. Notably, mistrust creates secrecy, which undermines the purpose of the alliance because the involved parties cannot share the important resources to increase profitability. Some Organizations believe that to share their technologies and other resources introduces competition in the business field, which would affect their market share. Although the benefits are numerous, the challenges such as cross-cultural differences, conflicting strategic objectives, goals, and disputes that arise from control and management systems have detrimental effects on alliances. In addition, the failure to collaborate effectively could lead to failure to realize the implementation of the alliance's goals. In highly sensitive areas, the leaders should agree on the resources that the organizations would share and the terms and conditions. In technologically intense business fields such as semiconductors, computers and pharmaceuticals, alliances become a new competition according to the terms and conditions that the initial firms agree to take. Such situations slow down the realization of the benefits of the alliances, which are to enter the global marketplace within a shorter time with fewer challenges.

Question 2

Governments in host countries impose regulations that multinational companies should follow to reduce conflicts. However, the regulations pose some challenges especially if they change regularly. Administrations control the deployment of economic resources by MNC managers hence limiting the autonomy of the MNC strategy. The first challenge affects the strategic freedom of the managers since they cannot implement their policies at will. The second is a challenge to the managerial autonomy as managers try to implement their strategies in their home nations. Host nations impose restrictions on product or market choice, national trade balance, and technology use. Managers also face the challenge to share their strategies with other stakeholders in the same business. In effect, they cannot have a managerial autonomy that leads to a competitive edge for the MNC. In some cases, managers are expected to decentralize decision-making processes, which affect the internal functions of the company. Subsequently, the managers of these organizations have to share their strategies with other firms, which lead to restrictions especially in terms of innovativeness and creativity. However, some leaders choose to develop strategic plans that make some competitive sense and agree with the host government on how to share the strategy (Deresky, 2010).

Question 3

In principle, global geographic structure affects large organizations that are not dominant in a particular region, country, or area. Such organizations create regional CEO who manages a given region as opposed to responding to global leadership. The advantages of the structure include ensuring that each geographical region is semi-autonomous with goals and objectives that do not respond to the entire world. In this manner, a certain region can have the authority to produce a particular set of products especially if they are located close to the raw materials. Alternatively, the region can use the accessibility to cheap labor to perform a mass production of goods that would be sold across the world. Additionally, each group shares responsibility for foreign operations because they have to understand how business is conducted in a given region. At the same time, the regional leadership improves it decision-making processes because it does not have to rely on feedbacks from the headquarters to enact the necessary changes (Deresky, 2010).

On the contrary, the system has disadvantages as regional CEO could opt to champion their unique needs and forget about those of the mother firm. Moreover, it could lead to duplication of work since each region manages its affairs independently. Innately, MNCs want a situation whereby they share experiences from their locations, but the strategy limits the opportunity because each CEO focuses to meet his or her objectives. Subsequently, it affects organizational performance and profitability; thus, limiting sustainability (Deresky, 2010).

Question 4

The role of information systems plays an integral role in the monitoring systems of MNCs. Notably; some organizations could choose information systems, which are incompatible with those of the other subsidiaries, as a result, the management should consider systems that are applicable across the multinationals to improve communication between the different regions of operation. Importantly, the exchange of data between different regions is critical to running an MNC; therefore, the firm should have systems that can process data from different locations even when they are not suing the same software. In this regard, the MNC can adopt different communication channels to suit varying needs that arise in the management of systems. The managers should be responsible for exchanging any necessary information in real time. On the same note, staffing policies differ from one country to the next; therefore, the management of the MNC should ensure that the policies are acceptable in the host country to reduce the chances of legal suits. Furthermore, the firm should ascertain that it expatriates are compensated as per the laws of the host nation (Deresky, 2010).



Deresky, H. (2010). International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures: Text and Cases. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Education.

Published in Management
Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:27

Nursing Leadership and Change Agent


Nursing Leadership and Change Agent


Just like other professions, the nursing field has gone through numerous changes that the nurses should follow to provide exemplary work to their clients. Although the primary aim of nurse to provide adequate medical care for the patients to improve their conditions within the shortest time possible has not changed, procedures and strategies in the medical institutions are changing to accommodate all nurses in the facility. Nursing leaders are charged with the responsibility to ensure that all nurses are motivated and committed to serving the patients diligently. Actually, leaders who do not engage other nurses in decision-making fail in the quest to meet the facility's objectives. At the same time, the failure of nurse leaders to motivate other staff members leads to reduced patient satisfaction. In the end, this affects the organizational performance since the nurses are not committed to their tasks. An ideal nursing leader should have the skills to enact changes with the changing work environment to improve service delivery and motivate employees at all time (Honkavuo & Lindstro, 2014). In essence, this paper analyzes the essential leadership qualities that would lead to improved working conditions for all nurse and other staff members.

Characteristics of a Nurse Leader

            One of the primary leadership skills of a nurse is communication strategies that encourage other members of staff to improve the interpersonal relationship. A good leader should always ensure that their messages reach the intended audience and provide clarifications when misunderstandings arise. On the same note, leaders should not disclose personal information about other workers because it adversely affects the morale of the employees. Quality nurse leaders should understand that the profession poses challenges that affect the workers’ mental health (Honkavuo & Lindstro, 2014).

According to Honkavuo & Lindstro (2014), nurses experience difficult situations, which lead to suffering. As a result, nurse leaders need the qualities to alleviate suffering from their workers in order to ensure that the service delivery is excellent. A good leader should ensure that the organization has a positive culture because this increases the level of concentration in the workers. At the same time, nurses should learn how to make independent decisions that best suit the prevailing circumstances. For instance, emergency cases cannot wait for the nurse leader to provide the best procedure to apply. Consequently, it is upon the leader to let nurses make ethical decisions without any repercussions.

            Anonson et al (2014) note that, “Nursing leadership is a critical factor in the effective functioning of nursing units, high-quality patient care, retention of nurses and organizational effectiveness" (p. 128). Notably, teamwork is crucial to service delivery in the nursing profession. However, ineffective leaders cannot create the necessary environment for nurses to work in groups to improve the decisions making competencies. The leader should encourage the staff to seek clarifications from their peers to choose the best procedures that uplift the lives of the patients within real time. Such conditions reduce employee turnover, which affects service delivery since the job market does not provide enough replacements for nurses who quit their jobs. The responsibility of the leaders is to ensure that employees are competitively rewarded to dissuade them from joining the competition. Fundamentally, for-profit health care institutions, nurse leaders should not allow their workers to engage in monotonous duties that lead to boredom because it increases the chances of stress in the workplace (Anonson et al, 2014). The field of nursing has one of the highest levels of work-related stress; as such, leaders should not create a situation whereby the junior nurses dislike their work because the situation affects both their physical and mental health.

            Efficient leaders should encourage the virtue of openness. It refers to the ability of the leaders to accept new ideas and incorporate them into their tasks. Leaders who have the trait are curious and more innovative as they search for better ways to perform their duties. In addition, it is the degree of imagination or independence where employees prefer different activities to a strict routine. In addition, conscientiousness, which refers to the leaders’ dependability and higher levels of the organization, is a good trait in nursing leaders. Employees with the trait exhibit self-discipline and act dutifully. In addition, they always aim to achieve their targets while favor planned activities rather than spontaneous actions (Anonson et al, 2014).

On the other hand, extraversion refers to the need to work with others in a bid to meet the organizational objectives. Such leaders seek clarifications from their colleagues while they show positive emotions, sociability, assertiveness, energy, and surgency (Anonson et al, 2014). Moreover, the agreeableness or the propensity to be cooperative and compassionate as opposed to being antagonistic and suspicious towards colleagues provides essential qualities that make leaders better people to work with. Such people show higher levels of trustworthiness and the desire to help others. Lastly, neuroticism or the ability to absorb negative emotions such as vulnerability, depression, anxiety, and anger quickly encourages nurses to seek assistance from the leader. In addition, it is the measure of impulse control and emotional stability. 

Identification of a Current Nurse Leader

            Identification of a good leader is ascertaining that the person has the above-mentioned traits because they are essential to service delivery. Although it is impossible to have a leader with all the basic traits, it is important to look for persons who are ready to learn the modern methods of managing people. Communication plays an integral role in a successful leader; thus, the individual should display excellent communication skills that would create a positive culture I the health facility. Nevertheless, the leader should have self-drive. He or she should not be a person who puts the blame on the staff when things go wrong. In principle, the tendency to blame others affects employees’ motivation because in most cases they fail to act for fear of reprisals. The leader should be ready to work in conjunction with other staff members irrespective of their positions in the institution. In practice, leaders should be ready to defend their staff as long as they act in ethical manner. The outcome of spontaneous decisions should not form the benchmark to evaluate an individual’s performance (Honkavuo & Lindstro, 2014). All nurses should receive equal treatment from the leader to make them feel appreciated by the leadership.

How Your Particular Nurse Leader has Lead or Could Lead Changes in Healthcare

            My leader has excellent communication skills, which he uses to pass any necessary information to the team. In essence, the leader ensures that all the nurses are aware of any looming changes way before they are implemented. The leader has brought numerous changes in the institution because traditionally we were not working in teams because nobody knew the benefits. Nevertheless, the leader encourages every person to work as a group because it helps to make important decisions within a short time. At the same time, interpersonal interactions at the facility have improved and thus conflicts remain in the minimum. I have realized that interpersonal relationships affected my performance since I could spend days in bitterness after a colleague accused me of something that I did not do. The leader organizes breaks where I spend time from the stresses of the wards to freshen up and go back to work as a fresh person. Furthermore, other nurses seem to enjoy the breaks as they engage in chats unrelated to their work.


            In conclusion, it is evident that the nursing profession has undergone tremendous changes where nurse leaders have to perform decisions that were traditionally made by the top leadership in any medical facility. In most nursing facilities, employees work as partners without any clear boundaries between seniors and juniors. Such situations require leaders with exemplary skills who can organize all workers to form a team that improves service delivery. Such leaders should have excellent communication skills that ensure that all the workers are aware of what happens in the offices. Additionally, the nurse should encourage employees to work as teams because this improves satisfaction and motivation. The leaders should appreciate the individual participation of all members of staff to develop decision-making skills in the nurses. In brief, nurse leaders have a crucial role to play to increase patient satisfaction in patients. Such occurrences increase patient loyalty because they trust the nurses to perform a good job and improve the quality of their lives.




Anonson, J., Walker, M.E., Arries, E., Maposa, S., Telford, P. & Berry, L. (2014). “Qualities of exemplary nurse leaders: perspectives of frontline nurses.” Journal of Nursing Management, 22: 127–136. 

Honkavuo, L. & Lindstro, M U. A. (2014). “Nurse leaders’ responsibilities in supporting nurses experiencing difficult situations in clinical nursing.” Journal of Nursing Management 22: 117–126.




Published in Nursing


The Presentation of Self" To Contemporary Society

In his book ‘The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life,’ Erving Goffman explores individuals’ interpersonal interaction in relation to how they perform so as to depict or portray a desirable self image. In his analysis, Goffman uses the imagery of theatre to analyze the interaction of human beings within the society they exist. Generally, Goffman’s analysis grounds on the relationship between life and performance (acting). Arguably, that is why he uses the theatre performance symbolically to signify real life human interaction within the society. As such, he uses theatre to exemplify the contrast that exist between front stage and back stage human behaviors. In the process of interaction, those in front stage or participants are referred as actors. While in front stage, the actor is always aware that s/he is being observed by the audience. As such, this makes the actor to perform observing some social conventions and in line with certain rules (Goffman, 1990)

The actor observes all these in order to create or project a specific self persona or image to his or her audience. Failure to comply with the aforementioned observations or guideline implies to losing face according to Goffman analysis. Of great importance to note here is that the actor’s behavior is always different in a private set up – back stage setting for that case where no performance is required.  As such, according to Goffman’s analysis, the performance is the self presentation. This is because, the performance subject individuals to form or develop new personalities of oneself with the perception that one has turned into an enhanced person. However, the emergence and advancement of technology has limited the physical social interaction between or among individuals in the society. This paper addresses the presentation of self (self presentation) within the contemporary society (Goffman, 1990).

Goffman outlines that while performing (Self presentation) individuals possess the give and the give off expressions.  The latter expressions results to impressions received by the audience that the actor never intended the audience to receive, while the former are impressions that the actor intended the audience to receive or rather, which s/he intended to produce or communicate. Apart from the impressions that individual give and give off while performing (self presentation), Goffman in his analysis also considered other form of imageries or metaphors for that case in respect to self presentation. One such imagery is the use of mask, which signifies a deception of face to face interaction. Through masking the individual performing (self presentation) is able to present and as well marginalize some aspects of one self. However, of great importance to note is that the individual in question does not become a different person by the virtue of masking – the worn mask and the disguised person are features of the same person (Goffman, 1990).

During his time, Goffman highlighted that telephone conversation was a way of marginalizing the way people interact socially and termed as ‘a departure from the norm.’ From Goffman point of view, technology would definitely disrupt the order of social interaction – face to face interaction. In fact, when referring to telephone conversation and terming it a marginalized way of social interaction, Goffman may have been implying that technology-mediated interaction is insufficient due to the absence of physical signals that are there in physical interaction. However, social interaction has evolved over decades with the advancement of modern technologies to such a point that physical interaction has been significantly limited (Goffman, 1990).

For instance, the emergence and advancement of computer-mediated communication has lead to the global acceptance of non-physical online social interaction. The global acceptance of online non-physical social interaction has resulted to questioning the applicability of Goffman’s interaction order within the context of online social interaction. According to Arundale (2010), Goffman’s interaction order is decades and decades old and hence outdated. In fact, according to Arundale (2010), Goffman’s interaction order should be amended to integrate technology and research progress. On the other hand, Miller (n.d) argued that electronic interaction was just but an ordinary extension or addition to what Goffman had already posited.

Computer mediated communication as received a global recognition over the past years. For instance, it possible for people to interact socially through exchanging ideas and feelings freely and with ease through the various social networks such as through Facebook, Skype, twitter, Whatsapp, and among other social network site. Of great importance to note is that through some of the available social networks people can share photos and video links and hence bringing in the presence of physical signals or cues as in conventional physical social interaction. Equally, technology advancement has resulted to the use of blogs as a tool of social communication. In fact, blogging has advanced to include features such as videos, photos, personal biography, bloggers social network profile links, friend lists, and as well to include web 2.0. The inclusion of all of these features plus the customizable backgrounds has enabled bloggers to offer a broad variety of identity pointers. Additionally, all these additional features allow bloggers introduce aspects of communication richness in their communication.

Despite the global recognition of online non physical social interaction, Jenkins (2010) argues that face to face social interaction still remains the real thing. However, Jenkins (2010) continues to acknowledge the progress of computer mediated communication and indicates that computer mediated communications presents an elaborate example of impression management. Equally, Jenkins continues to argue that the gap that existed between digital interaction and face to face social interaction has with time reduced owing to the communication richness that has been introduced in the modern computer mediated communication as a result of technology advancement.

As such, according to Jenkins (2010) analysis, Goffman’s interaction order theories are still applicable in the modern computer mediated communication. In fact, from Jenkins (2010) point of view, Goffman’s interaction order theories remain versatile and are of timelessness nature. Arguably, the physical interactions or for that case the offline interaction are the back stage or bases upon which online interaction occurs. As such, the aspects of giving off and giving that signify the conventional physical interaction can be incorporated to the modern computer mediated communication through the various means of adding communication richness to make it appear real. As such, the remaining part of this paper will describe the applicability of interaction order as outlined by Goffman in his work in respect to self presentation in the modern online world.

It has been aforementioned in this paper that online environment or settings for that case present individuals with a rare opportunity to present and to perform different personalities. The geographical distance between the audience and the performer (self presentation actor or person) makes it simple to cover up offline self aspects and adorn online aspects. From Goffman’s description or analysis for that case, this can be considered as a manifestation of splitting one’s self character during the interaction process. Note that in this case the self is divided in to the two – new and old one self.  Jenkins (2010) argues that the new identities of oneself re not developed or created online, but the division of oneself can be found as well in our day to day face to face interactions. For that purpose, the online one-self can be argued as a component of a broader identity – linking the one-self in some other offline contexts. In contrast, Arundale (2010) stipulates that the creation of new one-self is achieved online.

Arundale (2010) outlines that irrespective of how one-self is conceptualized in respect to self presentation, online identity facilitate or plays a major role in persona adoption. In fact, according to some researches, the term non virtual should be used to replace real world. The rationale behind this replacement of the term real world with the term virtual world is because “… Virtual identities created and maintained by users’ non-virtual identities, may be just as real to users as their non-virtual identities”. As such, individuals would not assume their online self identities as being far apart from reality. Baker (2009), in his work, coined an alternative point of view through his concept of blended identity. In this the offline oneself notifies the creation or the development of the new self. The online self subsequently re-notifies the offline oneself for additional interaction with those the person in question initially met online.

The aforementioned scenario can best be understood and explained in respect to Goffman’s face. Goffman explains that the individual in self presentation is “expected to keep face by maintaining the initial impression that they have made on an audience and live up to it” (Goffman, 1990 p.35). The face construction according to Goffman’s description can be likened to the action of putting on a mask. From the point of view of blended identity in respect to Goffman’s framework, it can be deduced that the self refers to the mere action of masking oneself. As such, the mask one chooses to literally put on in a given particular situation. The individual (actor) puts on or dons the mask whenever he or she interacts socially with other individuals online.  For that case, the actor leaves the mask on for the intentions of face in upcoming physical interactions. Of importance to note is that the audience is always unaware that a unlike self lies underneath for utilization in a dissimilar situation.

In online environment or setting, the avatar represents a form of mask. As such, the appearance of avatar in an online environment exhibits the interests or role of the user. The customization of avatars in online environment or settings has proved to be of significant importance in second life (SL) contexts than in other forms of virtual worlds. This is an indication that more value is placed in self presentation in second life. As such, users will have a preference for better looking avatars, that are fitter and those that are outstanding than they are in actual or real life. Note that this amounts to identity exploration and for that case a one sided edition or form of it.

In this respect, the online environment or setting for that case can be assumed as a stage in which the backstage is the offline life.  The particular actors in this stage invest in their ‘costume’ with the wish of provoking the preferred response from other second life (SL) inhabitants. As such, the avatars are subsequently of focus transformed social interaction. This observable fact implies that with the avatars advert, the users will definitely minimize and emphasis definite elements of self, such as behavior or appearance. This is possible in computer median communication (CMC) because the users have now become creators and editors in the modern global society. This implies that the users are in opposition to design and create their self representations. As such, they are in a position to choose what to depict within the foreground and what to hind within the background.

The fact that the blogger is in a position to maintain several blogs implies that he or she can create diverse persona to identify with each blog. As such, the self has been successfully broken down with each receiving a different set of information. Of great importance to note in these modern computer median communication (CMC) is that some blogs are anonymous and the blogger disseminates inappropriate or inapt subject matter away from the primary blog through a second blog. Note that in this case we have a primary online self, but depending on the needs a second personae maybe utilized. In order to avoid the output of the second personae compromising either the primary online self or the offline self and thus conveying loss of ‘face’ it is important to mask the identity. As such, the second life (SL) correspondent of the next blog is the substitute avatar, or ‘alt’ for that case. Note that these are usually the added avatars and are usually used for different functions to the primary avatar. 

Equally, the alternative avatars can be self-sufficient of the primary avatar in that they may be having a dissimilar appearance and even different friends. However, it is important to note that the users behind them remain the same. Owing to the fact that the alts or the alternatives are options for second life (SL) users, they may not have a primary avatar. As such, their different elements identity may be distributed among the various avatars of similar significance. However, this is quite unlikely basing on the fact that 98% of second life (SL) users were found to at least being in a position of identifying one specific avatar as their core representation. Despite the fact that Goffman’s interaction order work involved our day to day social interaction, it can still be argued that the use of alts as previously outlined in this paper is a materialization of Goffman’s work – that in the modern society individuals assume several roles and as well as several identities in their day to day life (Goffman, 1990).

The information collected from second life (SL) inhabitants in respect to identity interaction revealed four major finding: -

  • Users later stop role playing and hence consequently becoming themselves
  • Irrespective of the intentions, individuals behave somewhat in a different way when interacting online
  • A number of individuals will engage in second life (SL) as themselves
  • While in online interaction individuals cover up some of their personality attributes while at the same emphasizing others

In respect to Goffman’s description, actors or performers initiate the use of props but eventually marginalize them; though, the actor or the performer stills continues performing on stage – however, only the unconscious performance is noted; in so doing, the user stills brings an offline self that performs while interacting with the online environment. Note that aspect of covering up personality attributes of oneself in online interaction is an example of impression management in the conventional physical face to face interaction as described in Goffman’s analysis or description in his interaction order work. In this case of covering up or concealing the personality attributes the actor or the performer is trying to control those elements or aspects of oneself that the audiences perceive. From this analysis it is clear that there is a notable link or connection between the online interaction behavior and Goffman’s interaction order theories (Baker, 2009).

Another area that can be considered in respect to self presentation in the online world is the ‘masking and unmasking’ in identity tourism. Identity tourism refers to the situation in which online environment user, for instance in second life (SL) or in blogging uses his or her anonymity potential to adapt a different race or gender.  By doing so, the user talks and behaves in a stereotypical manner. The users of second life (SL) have the tendency of conforming to this norm in the virtual world. Mostly, in respect to identity tourism, second life (SL) users will opt for avatars representing ethnic diversity. However, other online environment users will opt for avatars depicting western and American beauty culture. Generally, users within the main three virtual worlds (inclusive of second life) focus on western beauty concept. As such, older, overweight, and underweight users will always aim at creating younger, fashionable, and leaner versions of themselves (self presentation).  Equally, it is common for blacks to use white avatars with the hope or wish that they will be accepted (Arundale, 2010).

In fact, the documented literatures in respect to this issue reveal that the aspect or the idea of being white in the game comes along with certain social advantages. According to Goffman’s analysis, it can be argued that a person attempting or trying to match such a convention in second life (SL) becomes a cynical performer and the desire to win a specific self presentation from his or her audiences prevents him or her from being sincere.

In the modern world, bloggers writing about political issues have to exercise some form of self-censorship in order to avoid arrest and government filtering. This to them implies avoiding analyzing political sensitive topics or to employ some indirect tactics and deliver their intended message – for instance, commenting on the specific situation rather than pointing out their personal opinion, using symbolism and analogy or though writing anonymous content. From Goffman’s perspective, the political bloggers a present self image ‘give’ by editing their message to avoid government confrontation but as well use the aforementioned tactics with the hope that their audience will ‘give off’ and understanding their intended message (Arundale, 2010).

 Note that the aspect of self-censoring indicates that the political bloggers are forced to self present a politically acceptable personality. However, they try to depict their true self persona (self presentation) through employing the aforementioned tactics. As such, it can be concluded that the presentation of self is a reflection of a growing trend that says something about our evolution as a society. 




Arundale, R. (2010).Face as emergent in interpersonal communication: an alternative to Goffman. In: Bargiela chiappini F. and Haugh M (eds.) Face, communication and social interaction. London: Equinox Publishing.

Baker, A. J. (2009). Mick or Keith: blended identity of online rock fans. Identity in the Information Society; 2: 7-21.

Goffman, E. (1990). The presentation of self in everyday life. London: Penguin.

Jenkins, R. (2010). The 21st century interaction order. London: Routledge.

Miller, H. (n.d).The presentation of self in electronic life: Goffman on the Internet', Proceedings               of the embodied knowledge and virtual space conference, retrieved from   


Published in Sociology


Hardships, Discrimination, and Hate Crimes Experienced By Interracial Couples in California

Interracial marriage is the phrase that is used to refer to a marriage between two persons from different ethnic groups or from different races. A related phrase to interracial marriage is intercultural marriage that refers to a marriage relationship between two persons of different cultural backgrounds. As such, from a close look, intercultural marriage can be used to refer to interracial marriages. A good example of a intercultural marriage is a marriage between an Indian person and whose culture lays emphasis on the importance of family over the importance of individual benefits and a white person for instance in United States whose culture lays emphasis on individual autonomy.  Over the past few decades, relationships between persons of different cultural and ethnic groups have become increasingly common within States such California in which, there have been a substantial increase in number of persons engaging in intercultural or interracial marriages.

Historically, the concept of separation of races or purity had been promoted in all states of America – inclusive of California. Laws had been enacted to keep all the races separate. As such, marriages between the different races were prohibited in United States – and especially in individuals who by high merit of marriage would not uphold the limpidness of racial-ethnic groups. According to Davis (1991), the laws were worded in such a way marriages relationships between African Americans and Caucasians was illegal. However, by 1967, the Supreme Court declared all the laws that that prohibited interracial marriages unconstitutional. Despite this declaration or authorization/legalization of interracial marriage relationships by the Supreme Court of United state the number of interracial marriages across the various states still remained low due to the stigma that had been associated with interracial marriage and relationships.

As from 1980s, there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages and especially since the start of 21st century. The increase in interracial marriages in United States had been attributed to the changes in legal status concerning interracial marriages and the changing perceptions of Americans concerning individuals engaging in interracial relationships and marriages. Equally, the increase in interracial marriages in most states can be attributed to the declined societal prejudice towards interracial marriages and the decrease in shame experienced by interracial couples and their families. In addition, the changes in census forms have encouraged Americans to identify with all races comprising the population of America (Davis, 1991),

In United States and in California in particular, the growth or increase of interracial marriages and relationships is not uniform across individuals of the various races comprising the population. This simply implies that interracial marriages have been noted to increase in some ethnic and racial groups but not in others. For instance, there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages among the Asian Americans and the Native Americans. However, the number of interracial marriages among peoples of black race and other races has remained low. In most case, it has been noted that more black males do engage in interracial marriages than their counterpart female counterparts. The low rate of interracial marriage amongst the black race can be attributed to the continued disapproval of white-black intermixing. As such, interracial marriages with blacks still receive objection and negative feedbacks from the family member of the other couple and especially the white couple family members (Davis, 1991),

Interracial couples face numerous challenges or hardships. The hardships, discrimination, and hate crimes experienced by interracial couples are similar in almost all the states in America. The major hardships experienced by interracial couples are as a result of family oppositions. As such, there is a possibility of these couples having high levels of conflict. The likely explanation for the high conflict in interracial couples is that such couples may lack the necessary social support from their family members.  Equally, the high conflict level in interracial couples can be attributed to cultural differences. For the purpose of this paper, I will address hardships, discrimination, and hate crimes experienced by interracial couples due to lack of social support from family members and cultural differences.

Family oppositions to interracial marriages from a wider perspective can be argued as the major problem facing interracial couples in the state of California. Family and colleagues affect the success of any marriage relationship through failing to provide the much needed social support. For a marriage to be successful, couples need to receive complementing statements from their family members. For instance, complementing statement such as they are a perfect match for each other and that they have the ability of going through any difficulty together and be successful partners and subsequently parents. However, in most interracial marriages the family member are against the marriage and hence such complementing statement may not be available. As such, the family members and to some extend the friends are of negative impact to interracial couples. For instance, the family members and friends have been known to facilitate dissatisfaction between the two partners. In fact, Bryant and Conger (1999) argued that outside support is a crucial component of a healthy and long lasting marital success. However, most interracial couples don’t receive outside support from their family members. Conversely, it can be argued that one of the hardships experienced by interracial couples is unsupportive family members. The opposition from the family members then damages the couple relationship and hence increasing the likelihood of divorce.

The lack of developing protocols and social norms translates to a lack of support for interracial couples. The disapproval from family members makes the interracial couples to feel insecure and unwelcome and hence damaging their relationship. In fact, Bryant and Conger (1999) in their work argued that a lack of family and community support was associated to the high divorce rate among interracial couple. In a study conducted that interviewed black-white couples, it was found that most white partner’s family member opposed the marriage. The concerns highlighted by the white partner’s family members for the marriage disapproval grounds on societal issue. For instance, such societal concerns expressed by the white family includes safety concerns, issues to do with the probable problems the couple’s children will face, and concerns about the financial problems the white partner will face for entering in such a relationship.  Generally, the assumption here is that the blacks are inferior to the whites and as well they are not financially good (Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell, 1995).

Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell (1995) outlined that some studies conducted in California indicated that the black families had no issues with interracial marriages and accepted or supported it. Generally, there is less opposition to interracial marriage from the black families. Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell (1995) continue to outline that mothers are of great influence and their opinion in respect to the couple’s relationship matters most. Equally, the studies indicated that fathers from the white family side played a significant role in opposing the marriage relationship. As such, fathers were found to strongly oppose interracial marriages than mothers. The studies also indicated that the opinion of the white family mattered most. As such, there were few black families member who opposed the marriage relationship. Studies have also indicated that black families have minimal or less stringent rules as to who should count as a family member. This makes it easy to accept someone from a different race and incorporate him or her as a family member.

Generally, the complications experienced by interracial couple in California are because of the depressing societal altitudes concerning interracial relationships. For instance, Caucasian-black unions are least to occur basing on the longstanding negative beliefs concerning these relationships and marriages. Generally, the researchers conducted concerning why such marriage relationships are rare indicate that Caucasians’ families have a tendency of disapproving marriage relationships between them and blacks. However, the black have a tendency of approving their marriage relationships with the Caucasians. As such, the Caucasians have a feeling that the blacks are inferior and that they should not intermix by allowing their family members to intermarry with the blacks. Equally, another study indicated that those couples among the Caucasians who marry a black do so because of their rebelliousness and self-hate. This perception questions whether or not interracial couples are reciprocate love basing on the rejection received from the family members.  Equally, arguing from the point that the dominant culture has the tendency of disdaining Caucasian-black unions, it is equally hard to imagine that such married partners are capable of maintaining a healthy marital relationship (Bryant and Conger, 1999).

Asian Americans interracial relationships have also proved to be rocky. In California, Asian Americans have the highest interracial relationship than any other ethnic or racial group. It is important to note that despite this increase in interracial marriages amongst the Asian Americans and other races comprising the population of America, initially, interracial marriages between the Caucasians and the Asian Americans was prohibited in United State. For instance, in the year 1910, the California State comprehensively extended the 1850 Marriage Regulation Act to include Mongolians - that is the Koreans, Japanese, and Chinese. Subsequently in 1933, the California state further extended the same marriage regulation to marriage relationships or unions with the Malays – that is marriage relationship with the Filipinos. However, in 1948 in a case (Perez v. Sharp 1948) the discriminating Marriage Regulation was overturned by the judicial system of California. Equally, such, anti-miscegenation laws were later overturned by the U.S Supreme Court in 1967 in their ruling in (Loving V. Virginia).  Despite the fact that the rulings of these two cases legalized interracial marriages, the unconstructive societal viewpoints on interracial relationships and especially in respect to Caucasian black relationship has not really improved the situation (Bok-Lim Kim, 1998).

According to Bok-Lim Kim (1998), there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages between the United States military men and Asian women – especially, among Vietnams, Japanese, Philippines, and South Koreans. According to Bok-Lim Kim (1998), the increase of these interracial marriages among the military men can be attributed to the low socioeconomic standing of these women living within proximity to the military bases. Equally, the increase of theses interracial marriages between the military men and the Asian women is attributed to the diminished self esteem among these women as a result of their low social economic status. Bok-Lim Kim (1998) continues to outline that these interracial couples were found to display unconcerned optimism and courage despite the hardships they faced as a result of their cultural and language differences and as well the lack of social support from their communities and families. Additionally, Bok-Lim Kim (1998) continued to highlight that the Asian women in question continued to carry the cultural norms burden, which in most cases attracts a severe penalty for opting to marry outside their race and ethnic group. It is important to note that despite the fact there has been a notable improvement in Asian out marriages acceptance over the decades by their families and communities, the major hindrances or problems to the success of these marriage relationships is because of their differing cultural background.

Interracial marriages and relationships still remain divisive for a number of additional reasons. For instance, a number of Asian Americans remain upset because of the ever increasing number of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This is because they tend and hold that interracial marriage unions significantly reduce the number or pool for that case of eligible women and men who would have otherwise engaged in same culture marriage relationships or unions for that case. In fact, a number of Asian Americans have expressed fear that because of the increased number of out marriages within the last few decades there could be facing out of specific Asian groups in near future. Equally, a portion of Asian Americans are of the view point that because of the high number of Asian women involved in out marrying, a number of Asian American men may find themselves failing to marry because of the diminishing number of Asian American women (Fujino, 1997). As such, interracial marriage relationships have continued to face family rejection from Asian Americans families.

The African Americans are expressing a similar fear to the Asian American within the state of California. This is because as outlined by Fujino (1997) in his work by arguing that as African Americans women and men achieve or further their levels of education they are moving to higher economic levels. As such, just a few members of the African American population are left available for marriage within their race and ethnic group. The implication here is that this wills finally result to frustration to that portion African American desiring to marry within their ethnic and race group. As such, the advancement in academic or education level and the subsequent increase in earning level will increase the rate of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This equally brings us to conclusion interracial marriage relationships or unions are likely to face family objection within the Africa American family side.

Apart from family objection another issue with interracial couples within California is conflict due to differing cultural background and as well socioeconomics issues. Less commonality between interracial partners is presumed to destabilize interracial relationships because it makes it difficult to communicate clearly and to agree on most life issues – negotiating and arriving to a satisfactory agreement becomes a problem for interracial partners. Issues of disagreement result to marital conflicts such as physical violence and behavioral complications such as infidelity, jealousy, irritating habits and foolish spending habits.

From a general perspective, most of the hardships and other problems experienced in interracial relationships or unions are direct or unique results of interracial experience.  Interracial marriages and relationships still remain divisive for a number of additional reasons. For instance, a number of Asian Americans remain upset because of the ever increasing number of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This is because they tend and hold that interracial marriage unions significantly reduce the number or pool for that case of eligible women and men who would have otherwise engaged in same culture marriage relationships or unions for that case. In fact, a number of Asian Americans have expressed fear that because of the increased number of out marriages within the last few decades there could be facing out of specific Asian groups in near future. Equally, a portion of Asian Americans are of the view point that because of the high number of Asian women involved in out marrying, a number of Asian American men may find themselves failing to marry because of the diminishing number of Asian American women (Fujino, 1997). As such, interracial marriage relationships have continued to face family rejection from Asian Americans families.

The African Americans are expressing a similar fear to the Asian American within the state of California. This is because as outlined by Fujino (1997) in his work by arguing that as African Americans women and men achieve or further their levels of education they are moving to higher economic levels. As such, just a few members of the African American population are left available for marriage within their race and ethnic group. The implication here is that this wills finally result to frustration to that portion African American desiring to marry within their ethnic and race group. As such, the advancement in academic or education level and the subsequent increase in earning level will increase the rate of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This equally brings us to conclusion interracial marriage relationships or unions are likely to face family objection within the Africa American family side.

Apart from family objection another issue with interracial couples within California is conflict due to differing cultural background and as well socioeconomics issues. Less commonality between interracial partners is presumed to destabilize interracial relationships because it makes it difficult to communicate clearly and to agree on most life issues – negotiating and arriving to a satisfactory agreement becomes a problem for interracial partners. Issues of disagreement result to marital conflicts such as physical violence and behavioral complications such as infidelity, jealousy, irritating habits and foolish spending habits.








Bryant, C.M., & Conger, R.D. (1999). Marital Success and Domains of Social Support in Long-   Term Relationship: Does the Influence of Network Members ever End? Journal of        Marriage and the family, 61, 437-450.

Davis, F. J. (1991). Who is Black? One Nation's Definition. University Park: Pennsylvania state     university press.

Fujino, D. C. (1997). "The Rates, Patterns and Reasons For Forming Heterosexual Interracial Dating             Relationships Among Asian Americans." Journal of Social and Personal Relationships      14:809–28.

Kim, K. (1998). "Marriages of Asian Women and American Military Men: The Impact of Gender and Culture." In Re-visioning Family Therapy: Race, Culture, and Gender in Clinical           Practice, ed. m. mcgoldrick. New York: Guilford press.

Rosenblatt, P.C., Karis, T.A., & Powell, R.D. (1995). Multiracial Couples: Black and White          Voices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.



Published in Sociology
Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:25

Nursing Reflection Paper







 Reflection of Master of Science in Nursing








Reflection Paper

Florence Nightingale articulated her views about how nurses should be educated, trained, and how care should be provided in late 1800’s. Today, the model still remains with different category of nursing organizations to ensure professional development of nurses around the globe. After working on a two year plan to obtain my Master of Science in Nursing, it comes the time to evaluate and reassess the program attended to identify if the goals and objectives are met. As a review of this long plan, I remember vividly the first day I attended my orientation spring 2013 track at Florida Southern College. I was not sure what to expect since I have done most of my academic studies in French back in Haiti and a small part little bit in the United States. I was in a new world of working adults with experience ranging from of 5 to 30 plus years of nursing experiences. I always thought that a Master’s program would be difficult due to the extensive writing required and major projects that would have to be done. Throughout this paper I will be summarizing the different courses taken at Florida Southern College during my Master of Science in Nursing Studies.

NUR 515 Advanced Pharmacology: In this class, the objective was to learn how to safely manage and prescribe therapeutic agents use in primary adult care settings. I have also built more knowledge on prior pharmacologic study of actions and effects of medications on the human system across the adult life span. Three major exams were given in this class that covered all the areas of pharmacology. In addition, presentations of different topics were presented by students with emphasis of the latest studies, which were very beneficial to the students because the actual power point presentations were shared on the portal where students could review the content of the subject presented. At the end of the semester, each student had to write an issue paper that based on a topic that was chosen about topic they chose at the beginning of the semester.

My topic was about Coumadin and its effect, which  has helped me achieve the objective of this course; learning how to safely manage and prescribe therapeutic agents use in primary adult care settings. This was achieved after researching on how and when to administer as well as the side effects for different people as I wrote my paper on Coumadin. Overall, Advanced Pharmacology class highlighted on synthesis of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics principles for the prevention and treatment of acute of chronic illnesses, and practice evidence-based outcomes, consensus guidelines and risk-management issues which is supposed to be the backbone of any nurse practitioner in any practice setting. After this unit, I can now safely administer therapeutic agents on patients without any adverse side effects. I understand when and how to monitor intolerable side effects and ensure that I change the prescription before it worsens the life of the patient. With knowledge in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, I understand how to prevent and treat chronic illnesses effectively managing any risks.   


NUR 520 Advanced Pathophysiology: The objectives of this course were for students to be able to describe the physiologic, etiologic, and pathogenesis aspects of the common health alterations seen in everyday practices. In this class, a series of quizzes and exams were given throughout the semester to assess the students’ knowledge of what was learned in class. This class was taught in a manner that helped students understand the disease process that affects each body system. As clinicians, understanding the disease process is vital to make accurate presumptive diagnosis without laboratory /diagnostic results. At the beginning of the semester, the class was divided in groups of three or four for a group project. I have had a great time researching the topic that was assigned to my group, an exercise that increased my knowledge in pathophysiology of diseases. Unfortunately, my project partner had decided after reviewing the power-point to add tons of information without my consent, something I realized while we were presenting. Nevertheless, this incident did not affect my learning on how to treat common health conditions as adult nurse practitioner. Even with the made alterations by my friend, I can now boldly say that I can easily describe the physiology, etiology, and pathogenesis aspects of the common physiological alterations in the lifespan of a person, describe the manifestations of certain altered health states, appreciate the surgical and medical treatment strategies for common illnesses, and appreciate how research findings are applied in certain pathophysiological disorders. From this, I have also garnered information applicable for nursing strategies, pharmacological regimen, and patient education, which are essential in delivering quality patient care.    

 NUR 512 Advance Practice Nurse Roles (APNR): Here, the objectives were for students to be familiar with the APN scope of practice, current laws and rules nationwide predominantly in the state of Florida. In this class, the Nurse-Physician laws were covered in detail so that students understand the strategies that will facilitate effective nurse-physician collaboration. I imagine that this process can be a very complex process that requires intentional knowledge sharing and joint responsibility for patients. To incorporate what was learned from the class, every student had the opportunity of presenting a subject based on a topic chosen during the first day in class. The discussions were vibrant and interesting throughout the term. During my time in APNR, I had the opportunity to conduct a thorough research on the Doctor Nursing Practice (DNP), which I presented in class with a conclusion that between 11,575 and 14, 688 students have enrolled in a DNP program throughout the nations from 2012-2013 with 1,858 to 2,443 graduated the same year. What I understood while attending this class was that collaboration is multidimensional. It does not imply supervision, nor does it imply a one-way or two-way information exchange. An effective professional collaboration relationship requires mutual respect. Negotiate from the start tasks that can be done individually and which must be worked on together, and what the expectations are for joint interactions. I also learned from the normal class learning as well as from the presentations of my friends the different laws and rules governing the APN scope of practice. It is easy to land in legal problems if a nurse is not aware of the laws governing her practice. With this course, I also understand role boundaries with the problems of role ambiguity resolved. I know the extent I can go in practice as an advanced practice registered nurses to avoid legal problems. I also understand in a better way the conceptualizations, leadership, role development, safety, quality, and other competencies required by an advanced practice registered nurse.    

NUR 535 Health Policies and Politics: The objective of this class was for students to be able to analyze the financing methods, access, availability strengths and weakness of the United States healthcare system. During my time in the class, the Affordable Care Act was about six months or less to be effective; the discussion were very heated and interested to know in a small group as my class how opinioned we can be when it comes to health. This class really taught me that clinician health care policies and issues can affect how I will serve my patients at different levels and many in different ways. Prior to attending this class, my focus was on patient safety goals. My time in this class helped me make it a point to stay on top of current healthcare concerns and legislative issues so that I can understand the issues and thus be a better advocate for my patients. From this course, I have learned the healthcare policy, organization of the healthcare delivery services, and healthcare finance. I understand my role as an advanced practice nurse in policy making process on issues that impact the health policy and ensure improved health care services. I also understand the organization of the finance system in healthcare organizations and how this affects the health of patients as well as the health care options patients have. It is clear that the healthcare costs should not be so high that the options of patients are limited.     

MAT 5010 Applied Statistical Analysis: At first, I was very reluctant about the statistics class. While attending the class, I realized the importance of statistics. It helped me understand and apply statistical terminology in research, use descriptive statistics to summarize data especially in my capstone which I had to read more than 15 articles before I wrote the first sentence. The knowledge of applied statistical analysis has helped me a great deal while I was doing an article critique for my research class. This knowledge has helped me achieve my objective of how to conduct research in the nursing field. At first, it was a struggle but I learned enough and will be able to identify inferential statistics to test for differences in measures, for significance of correlations, and for independence variables. I will not have similar difficulties when carrying out any research in the nursing field. This course is very important since nursing is a continuous learning process. A nurse should come up with effective treatment interventions that help solve the increasingly health conditions that are complicated and unable to be treated with the existing treatment methods. This course would thus help me be able to conduct research and analyze the data successfully thus impacting the nursing practice positively.  

NUR 522 Advanced Health Assessment: This course is one of the prerequisite courses that the Adult Geriatric Nursing students are required to take prior to starting any clinical course. The objective of this class was for students to utilize in depth theoretical and practical knowledge of the nursing process in conducting physical examinations and health assessments. Another objective was to be able to demonstrate the understanding of various methods of data collection that include age-appropriate history, physical examination and to allow students to experiment  hands on before stepping out to the real world rotation with nurse practitioners and physicians. For me, this class represented the cornerstone on how I look at the patients. During my health assessment class, I was able to apply the knowledge learned from the class room to a mannequin, which I found to be a great experience moment in my learning process. This course has been of great help to me as an advanced practice nurse. I understand how to generally relate with patients and ensure correct health assessments and physical examinations. The course is important in helping nurses know how to handle patients immediately they get into the nursing facility. I also know how to collect the required data when assessing patients. I understand the most important data to collect including one’s age, history of the presented illness, medications one is using, allergies, past medical history, family history, and one’s history. I also understand the body organs to assess depended on the suspected diagnosis in order to be sure of the diagnosis.        

NUR 525 Nursing Theory & Research: Formatted PICO question was one the first things I learned in this class. Even though it was a review from Bachelor of Science in Nursing, it was very difficult to come up with a well-constructed PICO question.  As a senior student, now I can testify that this course has prepared me for my capstone paper since I can quickly identify researchable problems within the clinical setting, critique theoretical models, and analyze practice outcomes. This class also integrates ethical and legal issues of nursing research. Information acquired in this class will assist me throughout my professional career, to explore philosophical perspectives and different aspects of nursing. Formulating a well-constructed PICO question is very important in aiding any research I decide to carry out in the nursing field. I have clearly defined population to include in the study identifying the problem to be resolved, the best intervention plan to take in the study, the comparison I would make with other treatment interventions to pick on the best, and expected outcome. This makes my research clearly guided and thus I would stay on focus therefore being easy to achieve the intended results of the research.  

NUR 603 Geriatric: Prerequisites for this class were as follows: NUR 515, NUR 520, and NUR 522. It was designed to examine selected clinical issues, health problems and health promotion strategies in older adults. Further, it was to explore older adults care systems, and comprehensive geriatric assessment, diagnoses of common geriatric syndromes and application of evidence-based practice to promote wellness, maximize function, and enhance self-care, mental health concerns, culturally appropriate approaches, and ethical issues. As a foreigner, I can be very sensitive to my culture, the understanding of one cultural element make a big difference especially in assessment of different treatment methods allowed by different cultures and how I can influence a patient from a certain culture to agree to a specific treatment process without disrespecting his culture.

The assessment stage assists me to understand the patient instead of judging his spiritual or cultural beliefs, but to include them in the patient’s care plan. This class also helps me to have a different view of the reality and to use my judgment and use the resource available to the patients in a best way possible. Although I have driven through some areas unnoticed, the community assessments and the windshield surveys showed to me how much information I have been missing. It also makes me realize that there are helpful programs available right in our backyard that provides assistance to others and works for a change. Assisting with maintenance and restoration while respecting the person wishes on how much assistance and effort they are willing to apply for the safety of themselves or their families is of great importance. For example, the homeless will be able to get information on shelter or appropriate programs to assist with stepping back to the work place. This class also emphasized on recognizing current concerns related to older adults medication use, with specific pharmacologic responses and recommended approaches. Given the variation context of ageing as a backdrop, this class focused  on some of the  most critical aspects of aging such as  healthy ageing and health care, ageing and the workforce to name a few. During my time in this class, I quickly realized the ageing of the world’s population is no longer a phenomenon restricted to developed nations but it is evident worldwide. Even though we are the second group that has to take this class, it is evident that this really tackled the growth of older population and how to manage their care outside the office/hospital settings.

NUR 6110 Advanced Practice Nurse I Acute Illness: In this practical experience, the student functioned in the role of advanced practice nurse in settings focused on care of the acutely ill client. Management of the healthcare needs of selected population is addressed incorporating the principles of prioritization, community collaboration and outcomes measurement. In class, case studies were solved and discussed together with development of the case and management. During my clinical hours, I was able to use the different learning experience that I received from the clinical settings and applied them as a floor nurse at the hospital to better serve my patients. The objectives of this course was for students to be able to design plan of care for diverse patients, incorporating evidence-based protocols to address the health needs of acutely ill clients, in a cost-effective manner, including appropriate evaluation strategies.

During my time in APN I, I completed my clinical hours in a clinic that cares primarily for creole speaking patients and it was very rewarding for me to be able to help those individuals whom I am  related to culturally. Even though I was able to communicate with the patients, teaching was very difficult due to lack of knowledge or lack of belief in the prescribed medicine. Even though patients were Limited English Proficiency; the clinician was able to fully practice following guidelines and Evidence-based Practice. This experience is very rewarding, I will encourage students to choose an outpatient clinic for their first clinical rotation because most preceptors will allow you more time with patients while seeing other patients. This course enabled me work in a practical experience, which is very important in preparing a nurse to fit in the practical field after graduation. It enabled me understand the challenges I should expect in the nursing field and how to deal with them.  

NUR 616 Advance Practice Nurse II Chronic Illnesses: The objective of this class was for students to engage in collaborative practice with a diverse workforce and be able to care for patients by developing plans that address the needs of the individual, population, organization utilizing research, current health policy and ethical perspectives. In this class, I completed part of my clinical hours in a clinic where I did my first clinical practice because the majority of the patients do not speak English or Limited English Proficiency. I feel like I was a great asset to the clinic during my time in translating, assessing, and gaining knowledge about my culture that I did not even know. In addition to the clinic, I worked with an alumnus of Florida Southern College in a Long Term Care facility where I had a chance to take care of the population of patients of my interest, which is geriatric. The component of this class was very tense, where student were given a series of hard exams and case studies which are very beneficial for national exam or patient care. This course has prepared me to work in a multicultural society in which I work with different colleagues and patients from different cultural, ethnic, and racial backgrounds. Incorporating the differences patients have in the treatment process helps in achieving positive results. This course helps me develop care plans that incorporate the needs of the patients. 

NUR 621 Advance Practice Nurse III Specialty Role: In this 6 credit hour class, I had to integrate the knowledge acquired during the program in different specialty settings. I had the privilege to work with a Nurse practitioner with 10 years of experience in pulmonary care. I was so impressed and challenged by different cases encountered during my clinical hours; I decided to spent more weeks with her than originally scheduled.  I was also fortunate to have some clinical hours with a physician who used to be a professor at University of Florida School of Medicine Infectious Disease Department, who took the time after each clinical experience to explain further the disease and the infectious process of each case, as well as antibiotic stewardship. The infectious diseases rotation was more fulfilling to me because I had the opportunity to see diverse cases such as HIV, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and cellulitis and all other infectious diseases related to patients. The class component of APNIII was very interesting with all the mystery diagnosis presentation. The presentation could have been online discussion where all students can participate so the professor can emphasize more teaching on the topic presented.

My experience at Florida Southern College has been outstanding. The Master of Science in Nursing Program is a journey of learning, which embellishes my knowledge and makes me proud of my achievement. The curriculum is very well rounded and relevant to every day practice and focus on evidence-based practice. The faculties at Florida Southern are very knowledgeable in their respective field and available via different avenues.




Published in Reflection paper
Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:23

Nursing program admission essay

 Nursing program admission essay

I am a female student pursuing nursing as a major at the Bowie State University (Maryland). This is to explain on the personal attributes that I plan to bring at the university, and those that I have already brought to the campus. The attributes are meant to promote a positive change to the school and personal growth too in terms of education and career.

So far, one of the personal attributes I have brought to the college is that I have joined the students’ association leadership program that guides the students towards the right direction. Being a student leader has really been of help for my personal growth and career wise. More so, it has helped to inspire others positively. The passion of being helpful to other people is what led me into the students’ leadership program. However, there are other things that I would want to bring to the campus.

Firstly as a nursing student, I am planning to come up with a non curriculum organization that will go by the name ‘Nursing Students of Association’ (NSA). The organization will operate just like other clubs around the school. The major activities that will ensue in the NSA include meeting at least once a week to share experiences gotten during the course of learning, especially the practical bit. More so there will be trips organized by the NSA at least once a month to visit other nursing students in other universities in order to gain a broad range of experience and ideas from a larger perspective.

On the other hand, I will ensure that there is a positive attitude towards learning among all students especially those that view education as being a tough encounter. This will be done through seminars in conjunction with the school administration at least once a semester to encourage a positive attitude towards learning in the university.


Published in Admission essays
Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:22

Why I Want to Attend College?


Why I Want to Attend College?

Many young people after completing high school think about going or attending college. Young people attend college for several different reasons. For instance, some young people attend college in search of intellectual challenges, for social and personal benefits, and for career development purposes. Generally, the reason I want to join college is a mixture of these four aspects – career preparation, personal growth, intellectual growth, and social growth (Peterson's, 2008).

Attending college is the initial step of paving one’s career. In any professional career, some minimum college education is required. The requisite for this minimum college education in any professional field of study or career is to ensure that the candidate possess some intellectual competences in line with that profession. As such, one of the major reasons I want to attend college is to gain intellectual knowledge in nursing in preparation for a nursing career. Nursing has been my dream career ever since I was a young child. Attending college to study and gain nursing concept is the initial step that will pave the path to my career development as a nurse (Peterson's, 2008).

Equally, I want to attend college and study nursing for personal and social growth. Apart from intellectual growth, attending college provides the bases for personal growth. Personal and social growth is important in one’s life, and especially when one is young to ensure a complete or a wholesome future adult. Personal and social growth competencies one can acquire by attending college include competencies of dealing with oneself, competences that aid wise decision making, and competencies of dealing with others in any given situation. I believe that attending college to pursue my dream course – nursing, will offer an opportunity for personal and social growth (Peterson's, 2008).




Peterson's (2008). Teens' guide to college & career planning: Your high school roadmap for          college & career success. Lawrenceville, N.J: Peterson's.

Published in Admission essays
Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:21

Partnerships comparison





Name of Partnership Form

Federal Tax Structure

State Tax Structure

Corporate Asset Liability Exposure

Personal Asset Liability Exposure

General partnership

For income tax, only the earnings of individual partners are taxed and not the partnership. Further, each individual partner is liable for Medicare taxes and Social Security taxes on their earnings

Each individual partner is liable for Medicare taxes and Social Security taxes on their earnings

The assets of the partnership are not exposed to liability in case of debts.

Partnership debts and wrongful acts of individual partners are paid from personal assets.

S Corporation

For the income tax, only the shareholders have a tax liability and not the corporation implying that tax is once.

Only the shareholders’ wages and not the dividends are subjected Medicare taxes and social security taxes.

The assets of the corporations are risked to liability in times of claims.

The shareholders benefit from the limited liability in that their personal assets are not exposed in times of liability.

C Corporation

Income tax is done twice on the corporation’s earnings and on the shareholders dividends earned from the corporation.

Only wages and not dividends of the shareholder are subjected to Medicare taxes/social security taxes.

The assets of the corporations are risked to liability in times of claims.

The shareholders benefit from the limited liability in that their personal assets are not exposed in times of liability.

Limited liability company (LLC)

If the LLC has one member, it is taxed as a sole proprietorship (once) but if it has two or more members, it is taxed twice, on the LLC earnings and on personal wages.

Payment of Medicare taxes and Social Security taxes is paid based on whether the entity is treated as a partnership or a C/S corporation.

The LLC assets are liable in times of debts, liabilities, and obligations.

Personal assets are not risked in times of liability, debts, or obligations.





Smith, J. E., Raabe, W. A., Maloney, D. M., & Thomson Gale (Firm).(2007). Taxation of business entities. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western.


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