Items filtered by date: December 2021

Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:10

Money the Gioia’s poem

Money the Gioia’s poem

The theme of the Gioia’s poem ‘Money’ regards what people talk of money. The poem is about the subject constantly held in every person’s mind – money, irrespective of whether one has it or don’t have it. However, each verse or stanza assumes a different view point in respect to the subject addressed by Gioia. The first Stanza of the poem provides the many phrases and words used to describe money – slang synonyms. For instance, Gioia uses a more general term that is used to refer to money, which is ‘cash’. The rest are slang synonyms that are used to describe or to refer to money such as stash, jack, and rhino, long green, and plain dough. The second stanza is about how money is used to make purchases. For instance, the mention of pockets implies that money is changing ownership from one person to another probably when making purchases. The third stanza has to do with symbolizing individuals with money. This depicted by the start line in this stanza that implies to a person with money – a rich person. The fourth stanza describes the aspect of saving money in order to meet ones future needs. Note, the aspect of making ends meets. The fifth stanza describes the interest that is earned by saving money. As such, through saving one earns interest thus increasing ones money on a daily bases. The sixth stanza concerns the circulation of money and that it make one have a voice when in possession of it. The aspect of money talking implies to spending it. For instance, when making purchases or when one requesting others to do work or perform some tasks.







Gioia, D. (1992). Can poetry matter?: Essays on poetry and American culture. Saint Paul: Gray    wolf Press.



Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:10

Money Poem by Michael Dana Gioia


Money Poem by Michael Dana Gioia

  1. What is the subject of the poem? What theme(s) or message(s) is the speaker trying to convey?

“Money” is a poem Michael Dana Gioia cheapening the value of money. The poet shows money as important but only when required as he uses colloquial, unintelligent, and simple language. The poet proves that money is not important on its own but only when needed as he says, “Money. You don’t know where it’s been,but you put it where your mouth is.And it talks”. This shows that even though money is important, it is not as valuable as people might think. 

  1. What poetic devices does the poet use? What purposes do these devices serve in the poem?

The poet uses ironic, pejorative, and sarcastic tone to cheapen money as he says, “Chock it up, fork it over,shell it out. Watch itburn holes through pockets”. This is to show the less value of money. He also uses insulting and petulant language such as “the long green cash, stash, rhino, jack or just plain dough” to show that money only ruins human reality.

  1. What kind of tone describes the poem? Is the tone important to the overall understanding or enjoyment of the poem?

The poet uses pejorative, ironic, and sarcastic tone to place money, which is considered very important under a different perspective. This tone shows that money should not stand on a high social pedestal that many people put it. The tone proves that money on its own it nothing.   

  1. How does the poem relate to your everyday experience? (That is, how does the theme relate to your life or the life of those you know?)

The theme is that money is not important on its own but only when needed. This relates to the daily lives of everyone since people should stop struggling fighting with each other as they accumulate more money than they need. According to the poem, a person should only have the amount of money he requires and nor more that will tear the pockets. 

  1. Why did you choose this poem?

I chose this poem because the poet plays with tone, language, and words to put his theme across. He wants people to change the perception they have regarding money that it is everything because when not needed, it only tears the pockets.


Interventions to reverse risks associated with cardiovascular disease

A treadmill test assists to reveal signs and symptoms of heart disease through exposure of the heart to exercise and stress. When one is involved in an exercise, the narrowed arteries undergo starvation and symptoms such as chest discomfort, shortness of breath are revealed through the treadmill test (, 2013). The 54-year-old who underwent an abnormal treadmill test was said to have risk factors like high fat diet and cigarette smoking, the following are the interventions that would help in reversing the risk factors.

The risk factors can be reduced through modification of life style because the risk factors are associated with lifestyle.

Rehabilitation can be introduced where the patient undergoes through a rehabilitation process to help reduce the cigarette smoking which is a risk factor (Buttar, Li, & Ravi, 2005).

Dietary intervention where   the patient is linked to a nutritionist to enable him have a healthy and balanced diet to reduce high intake of fat diet which is also a risk factor (Buttar, Li, & Ravi, 2005).

The above two interventions can be combined with medical treatments such as the cardiac bypass surgery depending on the type of cardiovascular disease to reverse the situation of the patient (Buttar, Li, & Ravi, 2005).

Physical exercise is important in reversing the risk factors; however, advice from a medical officer is important to determine the kind of exercise that the patient can engage in. The reason is that some patients suffering from heart conditions may not be able to engage in strenuous physical exercises. Exercise help to break down clots within the blood vessels (Buttar, Li, & Ravi, 2005).

Counseling sessions can be done to the patients before and after test to advise them on the measures and control of the disease. When patients get information regarding the disease, they take the right measures and control (Labarthe, 2011).


Buttar, H. S., Li, T., & Ravi, N. (2005). Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: Role of exercise, dietary interventions, obesity and smoking cessation. Experimental and linical Cardiology, 229-249. (2013, December 18). Treadmill Stress Test. Retrieved from

Labarthe, D. (2011). Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular diseases: A global challenge. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Published in Health essays
Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:08

Money poem analysis


Money poem

The poem ‘Money’ was written by the American writer and poet Michael Dana Gioia.  Dana Gioia was born in Hawthorne, California on 24th December 1950 and he is aged 65 years. His mother and mother were of Mexican and Italian descent respectively. In his early years, Gioia attended a Catholic school in California – Junipero Serra High School for 12 years.  Gioia schooled at Stanford University from where he received his B.A and later joined Harvard University to study Comparative literature alongside renowned poets such as Elizabeth Bishop and Robert Fitzgerald. According to his family background he was the first member from his family to ever attend a college, when he attended Stanford University for his Bachelor’s Degree in Arts. He moved to New York in 1977 where he worked as a marketing Vice president in a General Foods Corporation for 15 years. During his 15 years working career he would write during the nights and weekends and completed publishing three of his poetry books. In fact, Gioia claims that he is the only individual to have attended business school to become a poet (Gioia, 1992).

In 1991, one of his poems, ‘Can Poetry Matter?’ was published by The Atlantic Monthly brought a worldwide discussion concerning the role played by poetry within the modern-day intellectual life.  Subsequently, the Atlantic ended up receiving more response for this essay that any other essay it published in that month. In 1992, Gioia left his business career to concentrate fully in writing (Gioia, 1992).  President George W. Bush nominated him to act as the Chairman of National Endowment for the Arts 29th January 2003. A position he held up to 22nd January 2009. To date, Gioia has managed to publish eight chapbooks and as well four full-length poetry collections. His poems, reviews, essays, and translations have been published in The Washington, The New York Times Book Reviews, The Washington Post Book World, The Hudson Review, and by The Slate. His poem ‘Money’ uses one of Wallace Stevens phrase ‘Money is a kind of poetry’ preferably as a symbol that money, it purpose, and what it can do, can be likened to poetry work.

            The theme of the Gioia’s poem ‘Money’ regards what people talk of money. The poem is about the subject constantly held in every person’s mind – money, irrespective of whether one has it or don’t have it. However, each verse assumes a different view point in respect to the subject addressed. The first Stanza of the poem provides the many phrases and words used to describe money – slang synonyms. The second stanza is about how money is used to make purchases. The third stanza has to do with symbolizing individuals with money. The fourth stanza describes the aspect of saving money. The fifth stanza describes the interest that is earned by saving money. The sixth stanza concerns the circulation of money and that it make one have a voice when in possession of it. The poem employs the stylistic device of imagery to convey its subject. The first instance of poetry is from the first line of the poem which refers to money as the long green (Gioia, 1992). Of great importance to note is how the long green phrase is used to refer to something that means everything. I chose this poem because of what people do in their everyday experiences with money.









Gioia, D. (1992). Can poetry matter?: Essays on poetry and American culture. Saint Paul: Gray    wolf Press.




Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:08

Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure



Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure

Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure is a condition that occurs when the right side of the heart fails to pump blood to the lungs in an ordinary way. This situation arises when the right vertical develops problems resulting to heart failure. Heart failure is common in people whose left ventricle develops problems. When blood piles in the left ventricle that has problems, the right ventricle may not effectively pump blood to the lungs, thus, it weakens and result to heart failure. Thus, the most common cause of the Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure is failure of the left side ventricle (Robinson & Sprayberry, 2009). Failure of the right ventricle may either by diastolic or systolic heart failure. Although failure by the left ventricle is the major cause of the Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure is the problem linked to right side of heart, other conditions may result to condition.

            Other factors that cause the Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure include high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and valve conditions. High blood pressure arises in a situation whereby cholesterol or fat becomes deposited on the blood vessels, and the vessels become small hence making it hard for blood to pass through it. The damage on the coronary arteries of the heart may result to Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure because of restriction of the flow of blood. The coronary arteries may be blocked by the fatty layers or cholesterol and they become narrow. As the heart valves control the flow of blood in and out of the heart by opening and closing, these valves may malfunction hence forcing the heart to pump the blood hard. Pumping the heart hard may result to Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure (Uzelac, Moon & Badillo, 2005).  

For individual suffering from Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure, the initial signs may include:

  • Fatigue,
  • The legs, feet, and ankles may swell,
  • One gains weight,
  • There are is an increased rate of urinating

Upon the condition of the Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure worsening, one may experience:

  • Heart beat which is not regular,
  • Wheezing,
  • One may cough when the lungs gets congested,

Other symptoms indicate that the condition of the Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure is severe. These conditions include:

  • Chest pains that cause the upper part of the body to ache,
  • Breathing rapidly,
  • In some instances, the skin may appear bluish,
  • One may suffer heart attacks
  • One may also faint in some cases.

When an individual suffers these conditions, the person should be referred to a cardiologist. The cardiologist does some physical examination of the patient that may entail listening to the heartbeats through the stethoscope. The stethoscope is used to evaluate whether the hearts beats are normal or irregular. This monitoring is very critical because the cardiologist may be required to carry out further tests after evaluating the results of the initial tests. The other tests that the cardiologist can carry out include magnetic resonance imaging, stress tests, and the blood tests. The magnetic resonance imaging takes the photograph of the heart in efforts to evaluate any abnormalities. Stress tests are done to evaluate whether the patient is suffering from any level of stress, while the blood tests evaluate whether there blood is infected or whether there exists any abnormal cells in the blood.




Robinson, N. E., & Sprayberry, K. A. (2009). Current therapy in equine medicine. St. Louis, Mo: Saunders Elsevier.

Uzelac, P. S., Moon, R. W., & Badillo, A. G. (2005). SOAP for internal medicine. Oxford: Blackwell.


Published in Health essays
Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:07

Langston Hughes and Walt Whitman


Langston Hughes and Walt Whitman



It is notable that Hughes writes from a different script when compared to Whitman. While Whitman is considering everything White to be American and thus the Blacks to be outcasts, Hughes writes his poems praising the Blacks. For him, the Blacks are human beings who should be treated fairly as well. Even with these differences in themes, Hughes several writing techniques from Whitman. The first technique is anaphora, which involves the repetition of the first word in consecutive lines in a poem. This is what is mostly evidenced in Hughes’ poems. A good example is “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”, in which anaphora is evidenced in lines 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 through the repetition of the first word, ‘I’.  The second adopted technique is enumeration, which involves listing. Hughes uses this in “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”, as he lists some of the things he has done in successive lines. He explains how he bathed, built, looked, heard, and seen. This technique is evidenced in most of Whitman’s poems as he lists actions or items in successive lines.

From Hughes’ poems, it is evident that he has adopted a number of writing techniques from Whitman. However, this came during the Jim Crow era in which there was no way the blacks could intermingle with the whites. This implies that the two races could not share ideas and thus a black borrowing the ideas of a white man could have socio-political effects. The writing techniques used by Whitman could best fit description of Americans and thus Hughes should not have used them for his poems talking about the blacks. Hughes could thus have devised his own writing techniques. In fact, he should not have made his poems enjoyable because of using the techniques used by Americans.




Lauter, P., Yarborough, R., Alberti, J., & Brady, M. P. (2009).The Heath Anthology of American Literature (6th Ed.).New York: Cengage Learning.


Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:06

Zora Neale Hurston book review



Zora Neale Hurston book review

            I understand that the time when Hurston was entering the university the concept of anthropology was new. However, she did an extensive study to understand the cultures of marginalized groups in the society especially the women. Notably, Hurston restricts the woman’s space to private spaces such as the kitchen, bedroom where men constantly watch their actions from afar. In essence, the woman body is set in spatial settings in both its private and public spheres. In addition, I notice that although Hurston presents her woman in the free context, which is outside the home, their stance is intelligible and nomadic in the functionalities of the transparent space (Lauter, Yarborough & Alberti, 2009). Hurston works are fiction, which reveal the importance of the domicile as a woman’s space where they do their things in obscurity, even though; their minute tasks have significant effects on the society. 

            The study of the Haitian women shows their roles in the society were limited to the private spaces such as the kitchen. Hurston reveals that women did not have definite roles outside their homes because they could not perform tangible duties that could change the lives of the members of the society. Outside their homes women had insignificant men did duties as most of the other tasks; as such, only men are recognized in the outside where majority of activities occur (Lauter, Yarborough & Alberti, 2009).

            In principle, women were expected to marry any man out of the need of the family. On the other hand, men needed women because the latter were caregivers who could assist the men, as they grew older. Hurston chooses to use women characters who defied the norms and wanted to marry based on love. At the time, Hurston was writing her fiction, women roles in the society were determined by men and, as a result, they could not choose to do much on their own. The fact that their roles were limited to the kitchen shows that they could not engage in formal employment because men took care of financial matters in the family. For this reason, despite their contributions to the society, the society never noticed women's contributions (Lauter, Yarborough & Alberti, 2009).

Some of her characters chose to rebel the social norms and become independent women. However, the society regarded to these group of women as social outcasts because of their inability to marry the best suitors. In reality, Hurston wants to show the hidden powers of women despite the limitations in the society. As long as a woman has the will power to excel in areas reserved for men, she can do better than the males as evident in the case of Janie. Janie did not allow her first husband to abuse her violently for things that she could not do. She chose to run away from the violent marriage, which was not founded, on love but on the man’s necessity to have a woman helper (Lauter, Yarborough & Alberti, 2009).

In the social and political lives, women were not allowed to run for office or recognition. On the other hand, men used the women’s images to increase their odds to succeed politically. Consequently, in men’s eyes, women were objects that could be used to advance their careers and positions in the society. Every man knew that the image of a woman on his side could uplift his societal image but at the same time, they did not want to compete with women for leadership positions. In conclusion, women domicile positions in the society had significance in the society.




Lauter, P., Yarborough, R., & Alberti, J. (2009). The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Pub. Co.








Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:05

Symbolism in Sweat by Zora Neale Hurston


Symbolism in Sweat by Zora Neale Hurston

            Sweat refers to a short story written by Zora Neale Hurston in the 1920s with the protagonist being Delia. Delia is a washerwoman whose life is complicated by the fact that is unemployed and her husband is abusive. Even though her husband is also not employed, he happens abuse her for washing the clothes of the whites. Sykes, Delia’s spouse, happens to instill fear in her through snakes. In the story, there are many literature devices that are being used; however, this essay focuses on use of symbolism as a literature device by Hurston.

Hurston’s use of the symbol is skillful in that her readers intuitively respond to symbolically laden images without sensing anything heavy-handed in her use of them. (A symbol is an image, character, or event that represents an abstract, complex concept.) That her stories take their names from the symbols shaping the narrative is also disarmingly charming though parable-like. Among the symbols that Hurston uses include clothing, snakes, and the Chinaberry Trees.

Hurston uses clothing in the fictional story to symbolize many things. As a washerwoman, Delia represents the hard labor and meager earning that the women go through in places where women are discriminated and not dignified. The story happens to have been written in a period when women were regarded and subjects, and discriminated by the whites, while they were dominated by men at the same time. Clothing symbolizes how the African-American women struggled within domestic labor in the South. Despite her hard work to make ends meet, her husband disregards her and goes forward to trample on the clothing. Sykes does not respect the work Delia engages in despite the clothing work being able to clear the household bills. Through the clothing, the live of Delia and that of her husband are not respected but are disregarded.

The snakes happen to be a symbol for evil within the society. Delia’s fear for snakes is an indication that she fears the evils within the society. The evils are orchestrated by her family members along with the society. It is as a result of fear of the snakes that Sykes takes advantage of Her and ends up dominating her life. At a certain point, Sykes fails to kill a rattlesnake but leaves it with Delia. Delia is terrified as the snake begins to rattle due to hunger. Thus, this happens to be an indication that trouble is coming. Another symbol used in the short story is the chinaberry trees. This happens to be common among most of the books by Hurston. In her work, Sweat, the tree is a symbol for fertility and womanhood. Although these trees are not native, they were introduced in Florida and used as flowers, in this case, the African Americans are similar to the chinaberry because they were introduced in America to be used as slaves and hence make the lives of the Americans easier. As such, Delia makes their lives simple as she labors and is paid poorly.

In conclusion, Sweat is a great book that shows the disparities between the white folks and the black folks. In addition, it reflects the problems associated with the African American households. The prevalence of the women problems is attributed to the fact that their spouses happen to cause their troubles extensively, as indicated in the case of Delia and Sykes. Through the symbols, the reader understands the extend of the problems that the protagonist, Delia, goes through.



Works Cited

Lauter, P., Yarborough. (2009). The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Pub. Co.



Sunday, 05 December 2021 08:05

E- Commerce


E- Commerce

Electronic commerce is commonly referred to as e-commerce. E-commerce entails the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems as opposed to physical services (Turban et al., 2009). These electronic systems usually are the internet and other computer networks that a company is affiliated with. Various technologies have helped with the advancement of e-commerce. These technologies include mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, internet marketing, electronic data interchange, and automated data collection systems among others. The modern e-commerce makes use of the World Wide Web in most of its transactions. This type of business conduct has helped transform the sales aspect of e-business. It has become a very effective and efficient way for companies to communicate and interact with their customers globally through the internet and thus increase the sales of the company.

Much as it is more effective in improving the sales of an organization, e-commerce is very broad in providing advantages to an organization. It does not simply entail the buying and selling of goods and services. E-commerce has enabled organizations to offer services to their customers, collaborate with the existing and potential business partners, and also the conduction of electronic transactions within the company. An e-commerce framework includes five support areas for EC applications that include people, public policy, marketing and advertising, support services, and business partnerships (Turban et al., 2009). One of the fastest upcoming e-commerce platforms is the social network. Social networks have helped transform the communication in organizations. Through the various internet applications, social networks have been able to connect friends and business partners globally through various tools such as e-mails.

Many firms can benefit greatly through the use of the social network service (SNS) to interact more freely with its customers and investors. Through this service, the company will be able to provide an inline space that will provide basic communication and support tools for their customers and investors to interact with the company.

The main strategy for this business concept is to improve the customer and investor interactions of firms through the use of the social networking services. This will provide a baseline for an increase in sales through the increased customer outreach globally and not just in Australia. The customers and investors will be able to exchange information with organization’s customer service team regarding any orders, inquiries or payment services. The existing and potential investors will also get the chance to know the plans and progress of the company’s initiatives through the exchange of emails and newsletters on the company’s website.  The company website will provide each user with an online page. The user will be able to view the various products and services offered by the company when logged in to his or her profile page. It is through this account that orders can also be placed, payments done or any inquiries made through emails or instant messaging with the customer service team.

The social networking service platform integration in the company’s website shall also allow the users to interact with each other online. They shall be able to view the reviews of other customers regarding the various products and services offered by an organization. The exchange of such views by way of comments and suggestions will be beneficial to the company since it will act both as a marketing tool and as a customer feedback platform. These online social interactions will help expose the customers to the new product and service offers by the organizations. This will increase the hit rates in search engines and as a result market the company’s services and products more efficiently. This platform will thus reduce the costs that the company would have otherwise invested in for the purpose of advertising on other pages online.

            With the introduction of the ecommerce services, the company seeks to improve on marketing department and push for more sales of the products. This will be made possible by e-commerce business tools, which will help deliver incremental sales via the new online channels. These online channels will be a result of the improved customer interactions through user profiles provided in the website.

The e-commerce will be of great economic benefit  in the incremental revenue stream. With the introduction of e-commerce, it is expected that the revenue stream will increase and grow by a substantial amount. As a result of this, the company’s profit growth targets will be met and hence sustain the competitiveness in the market. Through the use of online platforms and social network sites integrations, this new online strategy shall be able to create more traffic to an  organizations website, this shall result in creation of awareness on the company products as well as an increased customer loyalty base. The company shall be able to make long-term acquisition and retaining of customers as opposed to quick wins such as spontaneous buyers.

There are a number of economic benefits that will result from the online marketing of a company. One of the key areas will be the realization of low marginal costs by the company. The online marketing will also help increase the traffic to the company’s website (Enders et al., 2009). This will enable a firm to gain a huge percentage of the market share with the increased customer satisfaction. It is averaged that the satisfied customers usually spend 15% more p.a. than the customer who is not satisfied. This will be of great advantage to the company.

The benefits of these e-commerce spot acquisitions will see to it that the company purchases infrastructure at low point in market hence helping with the reduction of the development costs incurred. These benefits will be reaped in terms of the process, people and technology. This will help reduce the brand and financial risks of the company. The company will also be able to benefit through the purchasing of proven quality solutions to its marketing issues in the form of e-commerce technological tools. This is a more efficient way instead of reinventing the wheel, hence allowing the time and costs that would have been incurred to be focused on quality executions of the company’s existing products and services.

The e-commerce for a firm seeks to improve its efficiency and effectiveness in delivering the demands of its customers through the use of social networking. In order for this dream to be achieved by this company, it is important that proper detailing is done in the implementation of the key e-commerce support elements. Elements such as online security, electronic payments, processing of orders, and customer service are important in the maintenance of proper and efficient platforms for a firm’s online portal. This will enable the customers trust the company with their funds in the electronic transfers and as a result, the increased sales of the company’s products will be realized. The e-commerce platform will see to it that a firm is able to understand its customers better, thus resulting in effective responses and relations with its customers. While engaging in the E-Commerce, security measures should be stepped up. Although there exist a great opportunity in the electronic commerce, security remains a concern, thus, the government should establish laws to curb cybercrime. Cybercrime threatens the future and growth of E-Commerce across the globe.




Turban, E, Lee, J K, King, D, Liang, TP, & Turban, D. (2009). Electronic commerce 2010. London: Prentice Hall Press.

Enders, A, Hungenberg, ., Denker, HP, & Mauch, S. ( 2008). The long tail of social networking: Revenue models of social networking sites. European Management Journal, 26(3), 199-211.




Published in business


Training and Development of Human Resource Project



Developing a Leadership Development Training Program for Moller & Maersk (M&M) Group

Human resources are very important assets in an organization. This is not the era in which human resources were considered objects that could be ordered around. All the activities and tasks in organizations are carried out by human resources. Irrespective of the size of the organization as well as the extent of the resources, the organization succeeds as a result of the performance and capabilities of the people who are the employees. It is therefore the responsibility of the organization to maximize the capabilities and performance of the employees through human resource management. The human resource function in an organization incorporates several activities including the staffing needs the organization has and how to fulfill them, recruitment and training strategies to have the top talents, handling performance issues, and ensuring that the human resource practices conform to the stipulated regulations (Ofori,Sekyere-Abankwa&Brquaye, 2012).

Organizations are required to ensure that human resources continue to be productive assets for the organization. This is done through training and development in which the employees are equipped with the necessary skills that will enable them perform their tasks effectively and to satisfactory levels. Training and development program would be of great help in the case of Maersk Group, which is faced with a number of challenges in human resource management. The talent management issues according to Maersk Group that need to be addressed are increased employee turnover, increased employee diversity, internal training and development programs, rehiring previous employees, and hiring experienced employees from the external labor market.

Even with these evidenced challenges, Maersk Group has to have the right talents in the right job at the right time. However, this does not mean that the company should always be losing top talents and hiring new fresh employees from colleges. There is thus need of the company coming up with a training and development program that would help solve the identified human resource issues. Even though there are different ways of ensuring effective training and development programs in organizations, the ADDIE is among the best. This model has five major phases that make the training and development program easy to plan and implement. This is because the training and development program should not only align with the goals of the organization but also with the learning needs of the employees who will participate in the training program.


            Even though all employees in an organization are important, there are some who are critical to others because of their indispensable nature. This is based on the fact that some employees are hard to replace and leaving the organization is a big blow. It is easy to replace the junior employees because their assigned tasks are general and less complicated and new employees can easily learn them. This is not the same case for top managers who require not only the knowledge and skills learned in school but also the experience that is earned by working in a certain organization. Such employees are also holding very important positions in the organization that might take long to replace. The greatest challenge faced is when a manager was in the midst of implementing a project that when left incomplete would negatively affect the organization (Alagaraja, 2013). These are some of the challenges Maersk might be exposed to as a result of increased employee turnover. Increased employee diversity is also a great challenge to the organization since if not effectively managed, the organization might evidence conflicts. However, with effective management of employee diversity, Maersk would benefit from the advantages of diversity such as varying skills/ talents.

As a result of changes in technology, there is also need of an effective training and development so that they do not get obsolete. With changes in technology, employees should be trained to be conversant with the applied technologies in the organization. Maersk also requires a hiring, training, and development program that will enable it hire experienced and skilled talents from the labor market. Maersk should be able to hire and retain top talents by matching them with the right jobs. This also requires rehiring previous employees who have maybe left and become more skilled and experienced in the same positions they held or even in higher positions. These are the human resource gaps that the organization should address. The main aim of the developed training and development program is to have the best talents who match the assigned tasks and thus report excellent results.

The training and development should ensure that the organization has very experienced and skilled talents for the first 120 positions. These are the people who are vital to the organization and who ensure that the goals of the organization are met. These are the people who are responsible for matching the tasks assigned to all other employees with the strategic plans of the organization. These positions should be filled by specifying the education, training, and work experience levels. In order to work in the HR field, the chosen candidate should have a bachelor’s degree in HR field, business, or related field. For those filling the top most HR positions, Master’s degree would be considered. Further, the candidate should have work experience of over three years in a related position. One should also be working an equivalent firm and managing over 2000 employees. Additionally, one needs to be qualified in certain skillsincluding mathematical aptitude, HR principles and practices, effective communication skills, strong interpersonal skills, and laws governing HR management.

The tasks of the HR manager include handling all HR issues in the organization including hiring the right talents for each job so that they perform the assigned tasks satisfactorily. The HR manager should ensure that the hired employees are trained to fulfill their learning needs. This is beneficial for the organization as employees would be able to perform the assigned tasks effectively and efficiently, meeting targets and standards. With the training and development, employees would be able to use the applied technology in the organization to achieve the set objectives of the firm through improved performance and productivity. The expected constraints include limitation of non-human resources and a strict timeline. The assessment tools and methods to use are training workshops, group discussions, and registration for formal college education. There are four terminal learning objectives for the case of Maersk namely decreasing employee turnover rates, increasing and understanding employee diversity, increasing rehiring of previous employees, and attracting the best talents from the labor market.


The purpose of this training and development program is to have the best program that would help solve the identified issues. The identified issues are increased employee turnover, increased employee diversity, internal training and development programs, rehiring previous employees, and hiring experienced employees from the external labor market. The program would set the deadline for achieving the set objectives, assign the tasks to be performed in achieving the objectives, and provide the required resources. This will be done as discussed in the learning objectives below:

The Learning Objectives

Decreasing Employee Turnover Rates

Action: Enhancing employee motivation by matching assigned tasks with the level of employee skills through training programs aligning with the current technology

Conditions: Contact employees who are performing poorly in their jobs and complain of job complexity 

Standards: Engage them in training programs to have them fit in their assigned tasks, conduct the training within duration of two weeks

Increasing and Understanding Employee Diversity

Action: Enhancing multiculturalism at Maersk by encouraging employee diversity

Conditions: Contact two supervisors who are in charge of diverse employees and who are complaining of challenges posed by diversity

Standards: Engage the supervisors in a-one week training addressing issues of employee diversity

Increasing Rehiring of Previous Employees

Action: Increasing rehiring of top talents back to the organization

Conditions: Identify five top talents that Maersk is interested in rehiring

Standards: Conduct research within three weeks regarding the best strategies to apply in attracting the previous top talents

Attracting the Best Talents from the Labor Market             

Action: Beating competitors in attracting and retaining top talents from the labor market

Conditions: Changing the hiring system at Maersk to be able to attract the best employees from the labor market.

Standards: Redesigning the training and development program at Maersk.

Training Methods

            The training program will take around three weeks in a classroom form of teaching with each class taking one hour each day, five days in a week. The trainers will be encouraged to research on what they are about to be taught. This will be done through classroom presentation and demonstration. Other training methods are lecturing, discussions, and practice in each of the identified learning objectives. Demonstration by the lecture is the primary training method since the trainer has to go round the classroom, coordinate all the trainers, and use power point slides. Demonstration will also be used during the group discussions that are meant to enhance interpersonal competency. During the demonstrations, the trainers would be involved in practical exercises in the form of performance oriented tests and performance oriented training. This makes it easy for the instructor to measure the learning outcome of the trainers by measuring the level of the learned skill.

Training Materials

  • A proximaprojector
  • A laptop computer
  • Textbooks for research

Lesson Plan

Title: A Training and Development Program Lesson Plan

Description: This lesson plan is required for solving the HR issues evidenced at Maersk

Subject: Training and Development Program

Grade: Senior employees at Maersk

Topic: Reducing employee turnover

Content: Research involving strategies of addressing employee turnover issues

Goals: The senior employees at Maersk would be able to understand the costs of high turnover rates of employees

Objectives: Given the evidenced problem, the trainers would understand the causes of employee turnover and the possible solutions. Through research, the trainers would be able to ensure increase employee satisfaction enhancing retention.

Materials: Projector, laptop, and research books

Introduction: Ask the senior employees chosen as the trainers if they understand any probable causes of turnover rates in the organization and the possible reasons they think would work.

Development: Using the probable strategies used in other organizations to solve the same issues, the instructor would start with it as the starting point.

Practice: The trainers would be involved in a lot of research and share in this in class with other trainers.

Check for Understanding: This will be done with evaluation test at the end of the training program

Closure: Finish up the training up program after three weeks by ensuring that the trainers understand what was being taught

Training Evaluation Criteria

Hands-on skills tests would be used to test the learning level of the students by gauging the training received. This will be before the training program is closed, immediately after covering the set learning objectives. There would also be an evaluation to test the reaction of the trainers, which will be through a questionnaire after the hands-on test. The questionnaire will report the feelings and attitudes of the participants and would also evaluate the effectiveness of the training method. 


After the HR issues faced in the organization are identified and the            learning objectives set, the next step would be the training program of few selected senior employees in the organization to test the planned training and development program that should be applicable to all the employees. The next step would be the implementation process as the tested program is employed in the entire organization. The implementation process would start with identification of the implementation team. This would be done with a project team comprising or organization members as well as the external aid of experts in the field. Maersk would hire the help of a HR personnel expert who would help in implementing the training and development program. He would help to ensure that the learning needs of each employee are identified and addressed appropriately. He would also foresee arrangement of how employees would get time off work to get into formal education to improve their skills and match with advancing technology. The expert would work closely with the HR team selected from the company.

With strategic HR goals aligned with the organization mission and vision, Maersk is likely to succeed. This is supported by Mohammed, Bhatti, Jariko and Zehri (2011)when they argue that human resources are the resources in delivering organizational services. This training and development programs would help the organization with plans to meet current and future human resource needs in order to succeed. Strategic human resource management helps in ensuring that human resource management decisions support the organization’s future direction, which is ensured by having employees who up to date with the current technology. The training and development program implemented at Maersk should also ensure that the organization keeps up in pace with social, technological, economic, and legislative trends that are linked to human resources so that the organization remains flexible and ready for change if the future is not as expected.

            According to Ali(2013),the training and development program should be designed in such a way that it helps in predicting the future human resource management needs after considering the current human resources of the organization, the labor market, and the future human resource environment the organization will be involved in. It is also through the program that Maersk will be able to effectively analyze human resource management issues that are external to the environment. As noted by AlYahya, Mat andAwadh(2013),a training and development program helps an organization determine where it is headed, the human resource strategies required to help the organization get the planned destination, and the skill sets required for the move.

The training and development program should be concerned with different human resource initiatives including of recruitment, talent nurturing, compensation and reward, training and development, and performance management among others. The compensation and reward function would ensure that the organization designs and administers compensation benchmarking as well as competency/ function based compensation strategies. This function should also create benefit programs that attract and make employees committed to their jobs. This package includes salaries, vouchers, bonuses, medical insurance, life assurance, commission, dental plans, company cars, profit sharing, and pensions among others. Through the training and development program, there is right compensation to the right talents at the right time. This implies that employees are assured of adequate compensation for the services they offer to the organization (Alagaraja, 2013), which increases satisfaction decreasing turnover rates. The hard-working employees in this case are rewarded fairly and in an effective manner resulting to motivation and increased performance of the employees. With effective compensation and reward scheme for the company, the training and development program helps in retaining and motivating employees as well as attracting new talents to the organization.


The evaluation of the program would be conducted after the implementation process to measure the success of failure of the program. Using the four Kirkpatrick levels, reactions, learning (retention), behavior (transfer), and organization-level results, to determine the far the program has benefited Maersk. It is expected that the training and development program helps managers work together with the employees to monitor, plan, and review the contribution of the employees to the organization. This way, the organization management is able to set objectives for the employees, assess their progress, and provide continuous coaching/ training and feedback so that employees are meeting their career goals. This function is meant to ensure that employees’ effectiveness is promoted and improved. Further, it would be ensured that the jobs are well-designed, there are clear written jobs descriptions, employees are effectively supervised, the employee training and orientation is comprehensive, and the work environment is supportive and positive (Ofori,Sekyere-Abankwa&Brquaye, 2012).

This program is also a major component for Maersk since it ensures that the organization is able to hire the best talents for any job position in a timely and cost-effective way. The recruitment process according to Anyadike(2013) involves analysis of the job requirements, attracting the right talents for the identified position, screening the probable candidates, hiring the best candidate, and integrating the hired employee to the position and to the entire organization. Training and development on the other hand is noted as a function that betters the performance of individual employees to ensure increased productivity of the organization. Talent nurturing is also an important function for training and development programs and is meant to ensure that the organization has the best talents and these talents are retained in the organization.                    

The reactions of the employees should be positive for the program to be regarded successful. The employees involved in the training and development program should also prove that they have learned what was required as evidenced through their behavior in the work place. The organization-level results would also evaluate the program. With reduced turnover rates and increased retention as well as attraction of the top talents from the top market, it would be evident that the program is effective. 


Alagaraja, M. (2013).The strategic value and transaction effectiveness of HRD: A qualitative study of internal customer perspectives.European Journal of Training and Development, 37(50, 436-453.

Ali, A. (2013). Significance of human resource management in organizations: Linking global practices with local perspective. Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, IV(1), 78-87.

AlYahya, M. S., Mat, N. B., &Awadh, A. M. (2013). Review of theory of human resources development training (learning) participation. Journal of WEI Business and Economics, 2(1), 47-58.

Anyadike, N. (2013). Human resource planning and employee productivity in Nigeriapublic organization.Global Journal of Human Resource Management, 1(4), 56-68.

Mohammed, J., Bhatti, M. K., Jariko, G. A., &Zehri, A. W. (2011). Importance of human resource investment for organizations and economy: A critical analysis. Journal of Managerial Sciences, VII(1), 127-133.

Ofori, D. F., Sekyere-Abankwa, V., &Brquaye, D. B. (2012). Perceptions of the human resource management function among professionals: A Ghanaian study. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(5), 159-178.

Published in Management
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