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Sunday, 05 December 2021 07:50

administration Homework Assignment


Homework Assignment


  1. State the administrative agency that controls the regulation. Briefly explain why this agency and your proposed regulation change interests you. Will this proposed regulation affect you or the business in which you are working? If so, how?

The administrative agency of choice is the social security administration. This agency is an independent agency of the federal government of US responsible for administering social security. Social security in this case is a social insurance program that consists of retirement, survivors’, and disability benefits. An American qualifies for these benefits by paying social security taxes on his earnings. This implies that one’s future benefits are computed from his contributions as an employee (, 2015). This administrative agency is guided by regulations that are subject to change. One of the regulations that was changed was the elimination of the letter forwarding service. This regulation is controlled by the federal government and the change came from them even though they invited comments from the citizens.

This regulation interests me because initially the service was considered important but now it is not. The administrative agency considered the letter forwarding service one of its responsibilities but now argues that it is not related to the program and thus should not interfere with the regular activities. Since the service only remains for matters of great importance, it is important to know how those matters are determined. I think this change affects me because I do not expect to receive a letter of forwarding service as it would have been before and if I do being informed of something of value that I was unaware of, I will be charged $35. The new regulation only states that I will have to pay a nonrefundable fee of $35 if I receive a letter informing me of money or property due to me irrespective of the value of such property. Even though a fee of $35 may not be a lot dependent on what the missing person expects in return, it is notable that people will have to spend time before they get used to the nonrefundable fee paid in a form of a check to social security administration.

  1. Describe the proposal or change.

The change is on the regulation of issuance of letter forwarding. This is a service that has been provided by the social security administration to the public since 1945. However, the administrative agency felt that the program was not related to the Act and thus should be ceased. The cessation date was 19th May 2014. The administrative agency was left with limited service that does not interfere with its effective and efficient carrying out of its statutory responsibilities as guided by the Act. While the service was initially free, the left limited service is now either free or at a fee. The free service is on humanitarian grounds “when the health or welfare of an individual is at risk and the requestor provides a compelling reason to show the person would want to be aware of the circumstances or when an immediate family member such as parent or sibling is seeking to re-establish contact with another immediate family member” (, 2014).The other offered letter forwarding service is at a fee and applies for a person who seeks something of value and it is reasonably assumed that he does not know the asset is due. 

  1. Write the public comment that you would submit for this proposal. If the proposedregulation deadline has already passed, write the comment you would have submitted. Explainbriefly what you wish to accomplish with your comment.

Since the letter forwarding service has been provided to the public since 1945, my issue would be to determine what changed. I would wish to know whether it means that the service that has been provided for over 67 years has been making the administrative agency effective and efficient. This is because the given reason for cessation of the service is that is not provided in the agency’s Act and that it interferes with the efficient and effective functioning of the agency. I would like to know how offering the service affected this effective functioning and how cessation of the service would change it. I would also like to know whether offering the service for all those years was of any benefit to the public and the effect its cessation would have to the same people. I assume that the offered services must have had some importance of value to the people who received them. Now that they have been terminated, it is advisable for the public to be informed of another place they can go for the same services, either for a fee or for free. The public should not suffer because of the change. They should be able to get the same letter forwarding services elsewhere.

  1. Provide the ‘deadline’ by which the public comment must be made. (If the date hasalready passed, please provide when the deadline was).

The deadline for the public comments was set on the 18th May 2014 at 11:59PM. Anyone who felt that he had anything to say before this regulation was made should have done so by the deadline date. The comment docket is now closed and people cannot submit more comments. Nevertheless, no single comment was sent and the regulation has already been passed.

  1. Answer the following questions about your chosen proposal, regardless of whether youare in favor of this proposed regulation.
  2. If the proposal passes, identify and explain the five legal theories you could use in an attempt to have (any) administrative regulation declared invalid and overturned in court.

The first theory to challenge this proposal would be to determine whether the applied rule is arbitrary/ capricious or whether it abuses discretion or violates any other law. The agency should have evidence proving that the proposed change does not violate any other law before it can be accepted. The second theory is determining whether the regulation is supported by substantial evidence. This is used for hybrid and informal rule making. This is different from the capricious standard that only requires some proof. Substantial evidence in this case requires more convincing evidence supporting the regulation. The third theory is that a regulation can only be passed if it complied with APA requirements such that it has a publication, notice, and allowed public comment. The agency should consider the comments given by the public before implementing the regulation. If no public comments are received within the given timeline, this does not necessary mean that the public is in agreement and therefore the agency should add more time to give the public time to comment.  The fourth theory is unconstitutionality of the regulation. The agency should only ensure that the pursued regulation is constitutional. Lastly is theory of ultra vires meaning beyond its powers. Ultra vires regulation goes beyond the powers given to the administration agency in its guiding act to change the substance of its mandate (Jennings, 2015).   

  1. Which of these challenges would be the best way to challenge the regulation you selected for this assignment if you wanted to have the regulation overturned, and why?

The best theory to challenge this regulation is the theory of determining whether the regulation is supported by substantial evidence. Substantial evidence in this case requires more convincing evidence supporting the regulation. The public should be convinced that termination of the service forwarding service will lead to effective efficient functioning of the agency. They should also be convinced that provision of the service prohibited the agency from the effective ad efficient functioning. The provided evidence should also be convincing that the provision of the service does not fall in the agency’s docket and where it falls.




Jennings, M. (2015).Cengage advantage books: Foundations of the legal environment of business. New York: Cengage Learning. (2014).Elimination of the Social Security Administration’s Letter Forwarding Service.Retrieved from!documentDetail;D=SSA-2013-0049-0001. (2015).Social Security Administration.Retrieved from


Published in Homework assignment
Sunday, 05 December 2021 07:44

Deliver the Value: IKEA Case Study

 Deliver the Value: IKEA Case Study



Analysis of the Current Situation

IKEA is a company that is doing well in market share and sales. Operating 298 stores in 26 countries and reporting annual revenues of 27 billion euros is something to celebrate. All these can be attributed to the effective values and design philosophy that the organization founder established. The effective values employed by the company are being frugal, environmentally aware, democratic, and design oriented. These values have helped the organization succeed in the global market. Additionally, the company sells a range of products that enable it win a large market share since different customers with different needs have something to purchase. The Swedish experience of incorporating restaurants and several customer services is also a major strength that the company should be pleased with. It is also notable that customers play a major role in production and logistics and this makes them satisfied since they feel that they are valued and acknowledged. JIT inventory management reduces operations costs since the company does not have to incur costs of storing finished inventory. 

The major opportunity for the company is the issue of room for expansion. The company has not extended into all countries that it can have good business. A good example is in the BRC countries mainly China and India where it is thought that business is promising. However, the greatest weakness for the company is that of the fear of the company’s culture being unable to work in the targeted huge market. It is feared that the current business culture might not work well in India and China. The major threat for the company is that of competition since IKEA is not the only company dealing with furniture worldwide. There are other companies in other countries that might enjoy low production and distribution costs when compared to IKEA. The SWOT for the company is as in the table below:



·         Room for expansion


·         Competition

·         High production costs in other countries


·         Effective values and design philosophy

·         Dealing in a great range of products

·         The Swedish experience

·         Incorporation of customers in production and logistics

·         Use of JIT inventory management approach 


·         Inability for the current business culture to work in the new targeted countries


The Target Market

Operating in a range of globally sourced flat-packed furniture products as well as a range of related furnishings for the home, IKEA targets diversified range of customers. The company targets all types of customers who have the purchasing power and thus unable to afford the offered products.  Customers are not limited by proximity to the company premises since using the JIT inventory approach, customers are allowed to place orders online and have the products delivered to their homes 3-4 months later. The target market is not limited by parenthood or responsibilities of taking care of one’s children since the company offers a variety of customer services such as childcare meant to make the shopping process simpler. The customers are also encouraged to do shopping as they enjoy the restaurant services implying that the company also targets shopping as friends socialize and handle other business issues as they take a meal.

The Problem

IKEA has established a promising business opportunity of expanding to the BRC countries. However, the greatest challenge that poses the problem is that of fear of incapability of the applied business culture work in the new countries (Milne, 2013). The country has established that BRC countries will help the company reach its goal of increasing sales by 10% a year to 2020, thereby doubling annual sales revenues. The company culture has worked successfully and resulted to pleasing outcomes in other countries the company operates. However, the culture is not expected to have the same results in the BRC countries. The company is afraid that using a Swedish experience will reap the same results in the new countries. Nevertheless, it is not easy to wake up and change the culture since it has had good results previously and thus needs to be preserved. The issue is whether a new culture needs to be developed for the new countries and the old culture maintained in the countries it has promising results.

Alternative Solutions

In order to solve the experienced problem, IKEA has to come up with a number of possible solutions and choose on the best course of action. The alternative solutions in this case include developing a new culture only for the BRC countries, changing the entire business culture, and changing the host country to accept the current organization culture. These alternatives courses of action have different costs, disadvantages, and advantages that help in choosing the best option. Developing a new culture for the host country is expensive though not as expensive as changing the entire business culture. Changing the beliefs of the host country to accept the current culture might be the most expensive. Operating different cultures in the case of developing a new organization culture only for the BRC countries might be expensive in terms of operational costs. It will also be hard to transfer an employee from BRC countries to the other countries and expect him to understand the type of culture to work with. It is also notable that the company might try to change the notions of customers in the BRC countries to accept the current culture (Bremer, 2012). However, this might not necessarily bear the expected results. 

Recommended Course of Action

Considering the implementation costs, operational costs, and benefits of each of three identified courses of action, the best action would be to reform the current business culture. It is notable that the current organization culture has worked wonders in the countries the company operates and thus might be hard to discard. The company might even be scared of changing an organization culture that has ensured the company profits all through. Nonetheless, change of the organization culture is the best alternative. This should be done after adequate research in BRC countries to determine the organizational cultures employed by companies operating there. It is also worth noting that change of the culture does not mean complete overhaul but rather incorporation of additional aspects that will make the new culture apply in the BRC countries. This is because a complete overhaul of events might lead to an organization culture that will not be applicable in the current countries the company is doing business with. The implementation process would thus start only after the right culture is identified. The implementation process will start with identification of the right personnel for each role. The personnel involved in the implementation process should be clearly informed of their roles and supplied with adequate resources for the process. There should also be a monitoring team that monitors every step of the implementation process with corrective action taken in time (Bremer, 2012).  




Milne, R. (2013, September 1). Ikea signals slower expansion. Financial Times.

Bremer, M. (2012).Organizational culture change: Unleashing your organization’s potential in circles of 10. London: On Demand Publishing, LLC-Create Space.

Published in case study

Create the Value Marketing Analysis: Daylesford Organic farm


Brief Description of the Daylesford Organic Farm Concept

The organic farm concept at Daylesford presents all the products provided in the retail shop to be organic and enticing. Everyone visiting the retail shop has something to order.  The retail shop is committed to simple passion for actual food. This is meant to ensure that customers visiting the retail center are not only having a variety of products that they should choose from but also confuse them on the best to choose. This way, a customer cannot get out of the retail shop without everything required for everyone. Products offered in the retail center are arranged in such a manner that they are attracting and encourage customers to be loyal to the shop. It is also notable that the center offers products that are better for animals, for humans, and for the environment. Even though customers have to queue before they are served as a result of the enormous numbers of customers visiting the retail shop, they are not bored. They have so much to admire on the waiting lines ranging from kitchen utensils, bath products, and enticing foods (Daylesford, 2014).

The new retail shop to be opened should follow the example set by Daylesford in order to succeed. Customers should be attracted to the new store as a result of originality of the products as well as the manner in which they are arranged in the retail center. Customers should thus find it easy to locate the products of choice and even be attracted to buy other products in the store that they find attractive. Operating a place where people can eat from or purchase food products requires that the customers are encouraged to eat healthily. This implies that we should provide organic food products in the new retail shop to ensure that no health issues are reported as a result of our products. 



Potential Market Segment

            The new retail store will target all types of customers in theNew England region of United States. This will include the six states in the region namely Maine, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Further, the target market will include low, medium, and high income people in the locality. This will be ensured through provision of different types of products so that there is something for everyone who visits the store. Even though there will be low-priced products to be afforded by the low income earners in the locality, this does not mean that quality will be compromised. It is better to have small packages for the low income earners rather than having low quality products. This region comprises of an area of 71,991.8 sq mi (United States, 2014).

            With then region being densely populated, it incorporates both urban and rural areas. The rural areas, which are the majority are known for improving the economy of the country. This is through supplying natural resources to the industrial companies in the urban areas. They also export food products such as fish, cranberries, maple syrup, and Maine potatoes. This is an indication that raw materials (supply of food products) to the new retail shop are not a problem. The climate in the region is varied with Maine, western Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire having a humid continental climate. This indicates that here there are long winters and heavy snow. In eastern and central Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, the warm/hot summers, short winters, and less snowfall. In the coastal and southern Connecticut, there is a frost free region and sunnier winters(United States, 2014).

            Additionally, the targeted region had an estimated population of 14,618,806 in 2013 with Massachusetts being the most populous and Vermont the least populous. In a survey done between 2006 and 2008, it was estimated that 48.7% of the people in the region were male and the rest, 51.3% were females. Further, around 22.4% were below 18 years old and 13.5% were beyond 65 years. Majority of the families have a size of 5 including the children the parents. It is also notable that most of the aged people are married. The major ancestries in the region are British Isles at 40%, Irish at 21.1%, French at 15.3%, Italian at 14.4%, English at 13.7%, German at 8.2%, Polish at 5.6%, Portuguese at 3.5%, Scottish at 3.1%, Scotch-Irish at 2.1%, and Russian at 1.9%. As a result of the industrial development incorporated with agriculture in the region, most families have high income of between $20,000 and $30,000 per annum(United States, 2014). 

Employment rate in the region is fairly high since very few people are unemployed. By 2014 April, New England had an unemployment rate of 6.1%, Connecticut 6.9%, Maine 5.9%, Massachusetts 6.0%, New Hampshire 4.4%, Rhode Island 8.3% and Vermont at 3.3%.  There are several education institutions in the region ensuring that everyone goes to school. Most people are employed in the agricultural and energy industries, in the media, sports, and their own farms. Catholic was the major religion in 1990 at 50%. Since unemployment rate is low in the region, most people are working class and thus with high level of income. The social activities are sports, music, and traditional knitting among others(United States, 2014). Most people in the region are ambitious as they get to employment to improve their lives. They are heavy users of the introduced products in the new retail shop, are informed and interested in it thus intending to buy, and are enthusiastic that it will improve their health lives. 

Value Proposition

            Most of the products offered in the new retail shop are fresh and organic products from the agricultural firms in the region. These are products that people are used to and only require a little reorganization and rearrangement in the store that they become attractive to the eyes of the customers. Customers will get great value for their money since they will get the quality they desire in their purchases or even a quality much higher. The offered products will be of high quality, priced reasonably, in all sizes of packages, and offered to the customers by well-trained sale personnel. The emotional benefits of the products include the assurance that customers will have improved health, can sit and share with friends/ family members, and are being provided with agricultural products from their own agricultural farms. Apart of high quality products, the self-expressive benefits in the products are the well-arranged shelves from which the customers can make purchase choices, delicious meals served with healthy accompaniments, and provision of products they can associate with (Osterwalder,Pigneur,Bernarda&Smith, 2014).


The new retail shop is expected to improve sales for the mother company because it will offer products that customers are used to, ensure customers of improved health, offer high quality products, and reasonably price the products. In order to ensure that all customers in the region are targeted, the store will package its products in different sizes. In addition, the store will operate in a large sitting and waiting area so that customers are not limited from eating from the store as a result of limited space. The waiting area for service will be organized in such a manner that customers can do a bit of window shopping, which will be beneficial to the store since some will end up buying the products of interest before leaving the center.




Daylesford.(2014). Daylesford organic farm Gloucestershire.Retrieved from

Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y.,Bernarda, G., & Smith.A. (2014).Value proposition design: How to make stuff people want.New York: John Wiley.

United States. (2014). The world factbook 2013-14. Washington, D.C: Central Intelligence Agency.



Published in Marketing
Sunday, 05 December 2021 07:42

Case study analysis- group development


Case study analysis 

Part 1: Group Development

There are five major stages in group development namely forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. In this case, the group has already undergone the forming stage in which the group members have been identified and come together as a team. During this stage, there is a lot of uncertainty and anxiety with cautious members. As a result, personal opinions, conflict, and controversy are avoided. The group is currently in the second stage, the storming stage in which competition and conflict are high. The group members understand why they have formed the team and are thus confident in addressing the key issues for the group. This is the reason each member of the group airs his views on what should be done and who should be considered to have the greatest opinion. The third stage is the norming stage in which the group is a cohesive unit and each member respects the talents and skills presented by others. The performing stage involves high productivity as group members are supportive, unified, and loyal. The adjourning is the collapse of the group after completion of the tasks. Understanding the stages of group development will assist The Woodson Foundation in building a cohesive coalition since it would be clear on what to expect in each stage. Understanding that the group is currently in the storming stage for instance will help the group respect the cropping up conflict and competition.

                                                 Part II: Problem Identification

The major problems faced by Woodson Foundation are poor student grades, high crime rates, high burn out of staff, and high turnover rates. The secondary problem is that even though the school understands the major primary issues experienced, it does not have a good way of addressing them. While active participation of all school stakeholders is encouraged, it is argued that some stakeholders have more power and say than others. This is an indication that some of the stakeholders who will be involved in the executive development team will feel ignored or disrespected because their views will not be taken into consideration. While integrative bargaining should be encouraged, the parents are less likely to be actively involved in the discussions because they are considered nonprofessionals. Lack of a transformational message encouraging employee and parent trust is a big challenge. It is only after the organization understands about individual membership in teams that it will be able to build group processes that are supportive in achieving the group goals. The group needs to understand that each group member has a role to play in ensuring achievement of the goals. It is only easy for team members to pursue team goals they help in devising and are allowed to contribute to their achievement.   

Part III: Retrospective Evaluation

The problems experienced at Woodson Foundation can be solved through a number of ways. The best strategies to apply in this case are through transformational leadership and development of a supportive culture. Transformational leadership involves active participation of all major stakeholders in the case.  The team requires membership from the Woodson Foundation management, the school staff/ teachers, school district representatives, parent participation, and students’ participation as well. This will ensure that each group presents the experienced problems and also helps in coming up with ways of solving them. While the school district is highly bureaucratic, the school management is interested in good results. In addition, the teachers need to explain why the high turnover and burnout rates, while the students should explain why the poor results and high crime rates. The parents would explain how they relate with the children at home and how they wish they were helped as well as the roles the school wished they played to change the behavior of their children. When the stakeholders are actively involved in proceedings of the group, they will feel encouraged to follow the laid down solutions to solve the issue. The second solution will be through having a supportive school culture. The school culture is so bureaucratic and this might be discouraging to the staff and students. It might be difficult for the staff, students, and parents to have their grievances reach the top management. The culture of the school should be changed so that grievances are easily aired and addressed before they advance into serious problems.    

Part IV: Reflection

            The best strategy for managing diversity issues for program leaders is through respecting diversity. Diversity is ensured when all stakeholders in the experienced problem are represented equally in coming up with the best solution. The best program leader would be the one who acknowledges and respects the views and suggestions raised by all involved parties. It is not logical in solving diversity issues to consider some people powerful and knowledgeable than others. The program leader should not only involve all affected parties in the discussions but also encourage them to actively participate. The leader should ensure that they are able to raise their views and be given time to support them. When coming up with the best solution, all raised views should be considered and the group members participate in criticizing each view based on its pros and cons.


Published in case study


The Coca-Cola Company Struggles with Ethical Crises

Leaders are considered the lifeblood of organizations and teams. Leaders are able to rise above hardships by drawing different leadership qualities. A leader is a person who through assigned responsibility or by assuming role of leadership influences and inspires his followers to accomplish the set goals. Such leaders motivate their followers to pursue actions, shape decisions, and focus thinking for the better of the organization. For all types of organizations, good leadership is a developable skill that should be attained over time. It is advisable for leaders to understand the components of leadership (followers and leaders). This is because most organizations’ hierarchical structures require leaders to be followers. Leaders are able to influence their followers by gaining support from people outside their chain of command. Success in this case results from the relationships the leader establishes with the outside parties. Leaders are thus required to build trust through being dependable and honest. Situational and informal forms of leadership are also very important in organizations. Situational leadership ensures that leaders use the leadership style that best fits the situation. Informal leadership is embraced when leaders with technical expertise, knowledge, and experience are allowed to lead in different situations (Odierno, 2012).   

The leadership aspect of effective leaders acts as a multiplier of effects, in which organizations are synchronized and focused, resources are efficiently used, people are motivated and energized, and missions are determined to achieve the desired outcomes. As a result, the organization has a clear purpose, ordered processes, and common methods, accomplishes its missions and sustains itself. It is the responsibility of the leaders to instill courage into the followers to ensure that they are committed to their roles and tasks. Leaders are able to instill courage in others if they are courageous as well. Courage in leaders is shown through the way they make tough calls and decisions (Odierno, 2012). Leaders should not use toxic leadership, which combines self-centered behaviors, motivations, and attitudes that negatively affect the mission, organization, and followers’ performance. Toxic leaders use dysfunctional tactics to unfairly punish, coerce, intimidate, and deceive the followers, which eventually undermines the morale, potential, initiative, and will of the followers to accomplish their tasks (Odierno, 2012). This is detrimental to the organization or team. It is also advisable for leaders from different levels to learn to come together (collective leadership) to synchronize the followers for a common purpose. The research below discusses the types of leaders and ethical issues at Coca Cola.

Effective Leaders

A leader is a person who assumes the responsibility of guiding others to accomplish the assigned task of the team or organization. This does not mean that I consider a leader as a person who should always to be heard. An effective leader is a person who also gives his followers an opportunity to give their suggestions. I consider a leader a person who is able to use participatory form of leadership in which he actively involves all his followers in making decisions. This way, a leader is able to succeed because he has the required support of his followers. I consider this defitnition the best for a leader because I have seen it work for the case of my father who even without a college degree has managed to grow his footwear stores into a mini empire. He has practiced good leadership skills and thus has managed to motivate the employees who feel part of the organization. My definition for a leader is not different from the leader described by Yukl (2013). According to Yukl (2013), a leader is a person who involves all his followers in the decisions and actions taken by the team so that neither the followers nor the leader feel as outsiders to the group. The leader should be a person who can make his followers identify with the group and thus always work towards its success.

As a leader, I have taken the example of my father. I consider myself a person who will never take my leadership power to coerce others. As a leader, I am a person who will offer guidance to my followers. I will involve them in all the discussions affecting the group so that they not only feel appreciated and acknowledged but also identify with the group. I will evidence the qualities of a good leader. According to mansfs, these are being proactive, flexible, a good communicator, respectful, confident, enthusiastic, open-minded, resourceful, rewarding, open to change, interested in feedback, evaluative, organized, consistent, delegator, and initiative. With these qualities, I will have good relationship with my followers and thus ensure that we work as a team towards the same goals.

Transformative Experiences                          

Effective leadership has been influenced by several transformative experiences. One of the greatest experiences is that of my father. I never thought a person can make it to effective leadership without formal education. I initially thought that a leader needs to specialize in leadership and management university courses in order to be effective. However, I have seen my father rise to grow his businesses with the help of his employees who now identify with the organization. I have learnt a lot from him on how an effective leader should be.

I have also had a negative transformative experience that will shape my future leadership style. I watched a close friend of mine lose his business as a result of poor leadership. He had sufficient capital to start and build his business to prosperity. Nonetheless, he conducted himself in a ‘bossy’ manner and this made him lose his flourishing business to his competitors leading to its eventual closure. He never respected his employees and well as the appointed supervisors. He discouraged them at the workplace and gave them the reasons to move to other jobs every time they heard of vacancies. He used his power to coerce his employees to meet the deadlines with unclear instructions since they were not allowed to question his authority and instructions. This led to costly mistakes which led to loss of many of the employees’ jobs. The mistakes made on the order led to loss of customers and eventually closure of the business.

Delineate the ethical issues and dilemmas the company faced

According to Laasch and Conaway (2014), there is a clear difference between ethical issues and ethical dilemmas even though the two terms are repeatedly thought to refer to the same thing. Ethical issues are the issues that require the involved party to choose between the right and wrong. It usually occurs in organizations when they are expected to choose between moral values and organizational goals. On the other hand, ethical dilemmas are the issues experienced when ethics contradict such that it might be ethical to do one thing and still unethical to have it done. Coca-Cola has faced a number of ethical issues and ethical dilemmas in the first few years.

Ethical Issues

There are several ethical issues evidenced in Coca-Cola’s case. One of the greatest ethical issues faced is the contamination scare that started in June 1999 in which around 30 children in Belgian were taken ill after consuming the company’s products. The poorly processed batch of products led to loss of sale revenues as the company was ordered to recall its products. Over 100 people were reported to fall ill in France as a result of Coca-Cola products. A shipment to Poland was also reported to be contaminated with mold. Further, the company took time to make formal comments regarding the issue and thus had a very negative impact on the company’s reputation.  Another ethical issue is the racial discrimination allegations filed by over 2,000 African American employees who felt that they were discriminated against pay, performance evaluations, and promotions. This lawsuit was very costly for the company as it was forced to pay $193 million. Channel stuffing was another ethical issue at Coca-Cola. This involved channeling more purchases to the wholesalers in order to inflate the company’s earnings and thus conceal declining demand or lie that there is high demand. This in turn misleads investors with the current investors investing more or attracting new investors (Jennings, 2014). This happened at Coca-Cola between 1997 and 1999 with extra concentrates channeled to Japanese bottlers to inflate sales and profits.

The trouble with distributors was also an ethical issue faced by Coca-Cola because the company breached the agreement it had with its distributors that Powerade sports drinks could only be channeled directly to commissaries and not to any other organizations such as Wal-Mart. Even though the move was meant to move the company from direct store delivery to imitate the strategy used by PepsiCo to distribute Gatorade brand, it received negative media presentation. This had a great negative impact not only to Coca-Cola but to its partner distributors.The problem Coca-Cola had with unions is also another ethical issue. This came at a time in which eight employees in the company died, 65 were threatened, and 48 went into hiding. The unions argued that the company was not ready to compensate the families of the victims. Even though Coca-Cola refused to take responsibility arguing that only one death occurred in the premise, this incident resulted to negative publicity.The last ethical issue involved coke employees who offered to sell trade secrets. This was done by ‘Dirk’ a very high ranked employee in the company. He offered to sell detailed and confidential Coca-Cola information to PepsiCo. Dirk who was later found to be Ibrahim Dimson from Bronx in New York was getting the information from the company’s international brand director in Atlanta, Joya Williams. This was a big blow for the company since employees are expected to protect intellectual property and not breach confidentiality.   

Ethical Dilemmas

One of the ethical dilemmas faced by the company is that of competitive issues. Coming up with strategies that will help the company increase its market share and maybe dominate the market is beneficial to the shareholders who have invested in the company and thus require higher value for their invested money. However, Coca-Cola being based in Europe requires understanding and implementing the anti-trust laws in the country in which a company should consider its market share when going for mergers and acquisitions. This is the reason the company was denied acquiring Orangina and Cadbury Schweppes because of fear of dominating the French market. The same case was evidenced in Italy as a result of the company’s anticompetitive prices. Coca-Cola was also accused by Virgin and PepsiCo of excessive use of discounts and rebates to gain a large market share.   

Increasing sales of a company is ethical and thus should be pursued. As earlier noted, any profit-making organization should come with any strategies that would help it increase sales and thus remain successful in the market. However, some strategies of increasing sales are unacceptable (Jennings, 2014). This was evidenced in Burger King Market Test in which Coca-Cola entered into an agreement with Burger King to promote Frozen Coke as children’ snack. Customers were to be given free frozen coke after purchasing value meals from King Burger. This was considered fraud after investigation and cost the company a total of $30.54 million. It also led to negative publicity, loss of trust by stakeholders, and criminal investigations among others. 

The issues/dilemmas you identified was the most significant.

The most significant issue was that concerned with contamination scare in which several people fell sick after consuming Coca-Cola products. This ethical issue put the lives of the customer’s at stake and was indeed a great scare

I consider the issue that isconcerned with contamination scare the most significant because of a number of reasons. To start, it is evident that it was not a one-time incident. It started in June 1999 when 30 children in Belgian fell ill after consuming the company’s products. This led to a decision by the Belgian government that all Coca-Cola products be recalled. A similar incident was reported in France after over 100 people fell ill for taking the company’s products. This led to the decision by the government to ban all Coca-Cola products till the problem was fixed. After a short while, Bonaqua shipment to Poland was contaminated with mold. In each of these incidences, the company took some time before making formal comment on the issue. Additionally, upon commenting, the company considered the situation minor instead of acknowledging its severity. This was ignorance on part of Coca-Cola since the incidences had customers’ lives at stake. Further, the report by the media on the slowness to act by the company was detrimental to the company’s reputation. The risk the products had on customers’ health and lives required time to gain the customers’ trust back. This was a great issue that could negatively affect the market share of the company considerably.

The steps Coca-Cola should have taken to prevent the issues you identified from arising in the first place.

There are several ways of preventing both ethical issues and dilemmas from happening.According to Hiduke and Ryan (2013), there are five major strategies in preventing ethical issues. The first strategy involves developing a workplace policy that is based on the company’s philosophy, code of conduct, and the rule of law. All the employees at Coca-Cola should be aware of the policy and be informed that they are accountable for their actions and decisions. This is followed by provision of ethics training to all employees so that they are aware of what is expected of them. There should also be an ombudsperson in charge of workplace ethics responsible for handling ethical issues faced by employees. In addition, Coca-Cola should research and understand the country’s laws before engaging in illegal acts that will land it in problems. Lastly, the company should ensure that the workplace ethics is applied in all the levels of the organization.

As noted by Ferrell and Ferrell (2014), Coca-Cola Company should have prevented the ethical issues faced through a number of ways. To start with, before engaging in any action or decision, the company should ensure that it is legal. The company should consider the actions that were against the antitrust laws before engaging in them and determine the effect this would have before the eyes of the law. The company should also consider the morality of its actions such as channel stuffing and the Burger King Market Test. It should consider how others will react once they learn of the actions taken.

How Coca-Cola responded to the crisis and determine if this was the best possible response or not. 

Coca-Cola responded differently to each of the ethical issues and dilemmas experienced. On the issue of contamination scare, the company was very slow in making formal comments to the problem even though it was repeating itself. In addition, the company considered the issue a minor problem even though it involved the health of the customers. When the company was ordered by Belgian government to stop its marketing campaign, the company still continued thinking that the campaign will help it win consumer trust. This was acting contrary to Belgium’s antitrust laws and was thus not the best response. On the issue of competitive issue, the company did not understand the laws in France on dominance and anticompetitive prices. On the issue of racial discrimination, Coca-Cola responded in a great manner when it created a diversity council and paid for the lawsuit. However, the fact that it denied the allegations was not a good response because they were based on facts that the management had known for long. The same response was evidenced in the King Burger Market Test in which even though the company paid for the lawsuit, it denied the allegations like it always did. The company similarly denied the allegations placed by the unions regarding the families of the employees who got injured at the workplace. Nevertheless, the company had a good response for the issue of channel stuffing. It agreed to the allegations and vowed not to engage in the practice again. The company also created a compliance and ethics office that would verify that the financial reports were accurate. The company also agreed to cut on concentrate stocked by international bottlers.

Best possible response or not? 

Considering how Coca-Cola responded to the ethical issues and dilemmas, it can be argued that it was not the best response from them. When ethical issues are experienced in an organization, the first thing would be to accept responsibility and their severity. It is notable that even though the company paid the involved fines, it did not accept responsibility of any of the consequences. In fact, the company did not agree to any of the allegations made. In addition, it is expected that the company formal comments regarding the made allegations are made in a timely manner before the media draws its own conclusions. Since Coca-Cola acted the contrary, it follows that the made decision was not the best in most of the faced ethical issues.




Ferrell, O. C., & Ferrell, J. F. (2014).Business ethics: Ethical decision making & cases. New York: Cengage Learning.

Hiduke, G. P., & Ryan, J. D. (2013).Small business: An entrepreneur’s business plan. Mason OH: South-Western.

Jennings, M. (2014).Business ethics: Case studies and selected readings. New York: Cengage Learning.

Laasch, O., & Conaway, R. (2014).Principles of responsible management: Glocal sustainability, responsibility, and ethics. New York: Cengage Learning.

Yukl, G. A. (2013). Leadership in organizations. Boston: Pearson.













Published in Management

Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) for Starbucks

Executive Summary

Starbucks Corporation is the leader in the coffee business after Costa Coffee of the United Kingdom. The firm was founded in 1971 in Seattle, Washington but it has grown to invest in sixty-eight countries across the world. In addition, the firm promises clients the best coffee that they can ever find in the market. In essence, the firm embraces integrated marketing communication to reach as many customers as possible. Using both traditional and modern marketing methods, the firm has been able to beat the competition because the target customers have access to any information related to the firm’s products. Notably, technological advances across the world have allowed many people to have access to internet. Consequently, Starbucks uses the social media to market its products and answer clients’ queries in real time thus increasing customer loyalty.



Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) for Starbucks


Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) refers to applying unchanging brand messaging to the target customers via both traditional and modern marketing channels while using diverse promotional techniques to give each other strength. The world of business is increasingly becoming competitive which means that managers have no choice other than ensuring that they develop marketing strategies that would put them ahead of the competition. Notably, Starbucks Corporation otherwise known as Starbucks Coffee is a market leader in the world ahead of Costa Coffee, which is based in the United Kingdom. Starbucks was founded in Seattle, the United States on 30 March 1971 but it has since grown to open thousands of branches across the world. Innately, the organization has in excess of 21,160 stores spread in more than sixty-three countries around the globe. Starbucks has seven hundred and ninety three stores in the United Kingdom, 1,170 in Japan, 1,451 in Canada, 1,570 in China and 12,067 in the US. Essentially, Starbucks targets customers from all lifestyles irrespective of their religion, race, ethnicity or color of skin.

In essence, by the end of November 2014, Starbucks had its presence in sixty-eight countries, which are listed below according to their geographical locations


North America


South America





New Zealand



Monaco - La Condamine

South Africa



















Costa Rica



Sri Lanka



El Salvador



South Korea












Saudi Arabia



Puerto Rico






















The Netherlands






Isle of Wight









































Hong Kong













Czech Republic


























Intrinsically, Starbucks has not changed its brand name over all the years since its inception. Consequently, majority of the firm’s loyal customers are always happy to be associated with the brand because it guarantees top quality coffee sourced from the best across the world. In essence, any organization cannot lie low after realizing that it is the market leader in any business, which means that Starbucks’ management has been on the forefront to ensure that their clients understand the firm’s products. Diversification of products is a critical antidote that it uses to ensure that clients have a wide range of products to choose. Ideally, its products include snacks, pastries, full-leaf-teas, micro-ground instant coffee and whole-bean coffee. In addition, majority of its stores offer pre-packaged foods, cold and hot sandwiches as well tumblers and mugs. Moreover, stores offering Starbucks Evenings serve appetizers, beers and wines. Furthermore, the organization runs a subsidiary by the name of Hear Music, which markets film, music and books. At the same time, most of the products are seasonal while others are specifically meant for chosen stores according to their locations. Customers form the backbone of any organization’s success and sustainability, which means that they need to understand what, is happening in the firm of their choice. However, without IMC, it would be impossible to make organization’s products to the target market. Every organization requires a workable IMC strategy that would allow clients to know the latest products and services from the company.

IMC Objectives

The organization embraces IMC to ensure that its products reach the target market in real time. For example from the year 1987 to 2007, the organization was opening an average of two new stores every day. Although the organization was making enormous profits in the 1980s, its expansion to British Columbia and Midwest resulted in significant losses. The management realized that investing in new areas without having proven communication strategies was the main problem. Consequently, the firm invested in California in 1991 after ensuring that its brand had become trendy. IMC allows any organization to realize the need to bring its products closer to the people. As a result, Starbucks opened its first outlet outside US or Canada in 1991 in Tokyo, Japan. Going forward, the firm has about a third of its stores based outside US. Despite the fact that the organization planned to open more than nine hundred stores outside US, the venture led to the closure of three hundred stores in its native country.

These are Starbucks’ IMC Objectives

  • Bring the products closer to the target market
  • Stick to the old brand name “Starbucks”
  • Embrace both traditional and internet marketing to reach the target customer
  • Invest in as many countries as possible to fight competition
  • Prove that the organization offers the best and high quality coffee one could get
  • Higher the best personnel for promoting their products
  • Adhere to cultural differences wherever the organization invests
  • Market analysis

Communications Strategy Plans

For any organization to remain competitive in any business, the management must embrace communication strategy plans that best suit the target customers’ needs. Technological advances and globalization have changed traditional marketing methods as multinationals aspire to reach the highest number of customers within the shortest time possible. However, old global firms have not done away with the traditional marketing methods because some clients do not have access to newest communication methods such as internet. Since Starbucks Corporation has stores in various countries across the world it must adhere to the politics of the country it ventures. Some of the countries such as Mexico and China have different political climates when compared to that of the United States.

Ideally, the organization collaborated with Conservation International to help save the environment for health coffee production in Mexico in order to increase the organization’s acceptance in the society. Ideally, Starbuck did not want to go against Mexican political issues by dealing directly with coffee farmers for the Mexican government could have felt as if it were isolated (Renard, 2010). Although, the organization is non-political, it has faced several protests in countries such as Beirut, Dubai and Cairo (Roark, 2014). In addition, Gaza activists urge people to boycott the organization because they feel that it supports Israeli militarists. Innately, the organization focuses on abiding to laws and regulations for any community that they serve. Notably, guns are allowed in the United States but in countries where they are illegal, Starbucks does not allow them in its stores. By adhering to political stances in any country, Starbucks has been able to grow its business in countries that differ with US in majority of their instances. Essentially, Starbucks does not support any political activists in any country; thus, reducing chances of conflicts between the firm and the government. Intrinsically, Starbucks respects political stability, tariffs, trade restrictions, environmental laws, labor laws and tax policy. The organization employs only authorized people in all countries. Moreover, it pays taxes according to the regulations (Jaffee, 2007). Ideally, its operations are environmentally safe which increases customer loyalty; thus, increasing its revenues.

            Starbucks understands that inflation rates, exchange rates, interest rates and economic growth are vital to its success. At the same time, IMC enables the firm to communicate effectively with both staffers and suppliers thus increasing client loyalty; hence increasing the company’s turnover. Essentially, interest rates affect an organization’s cost of capital because they dictate the amount of resources that an organization has. Since it has invested in several countries, it studies the country’s interest rates before opening a store in the nation. On the other hand, Starbucks outsources only the best coffee from any part of the world. Consequently, exchanges rates determine the cost of any imported or exported service or goods. At the same time, the cost of its products are determined by the amount spend on acquiring raw materials. Furthermore, clients are happy when they know that the products are offered at the best price in the market. Starbucks does not overcharge its customers based on the distance from the source of raw materials (Roark, 2014). 

            Communication would be in vain especially when the management does not value cultural beliefs for they are different in any given community. The firm offers healthy beverages to the communities because it wants to improve their health. Starbucks works on meeting client needs, which are determined by social trends. In young populations, the management employs young people in order to increase the number of customers because they feel more attached to the workers. For example, in China majority of the managers in the organization’s stores are young because most of the clients are youthful. On the contrary, majority of US clients are older hence, the management employs older people in its stores (Roark, 2014).

            Primarily, over the years people have been embracing technology in most of their activities. The management uses automated coffee dispensers in some its stores where a customer does not need an employee to serve him or her. Ultimately, this goes a long way in reducing costs for the organization’s service delivery. In addition, the cost of the firm’s products goes down hence increasing sales and revenue for the organization. The machines can serve two hundred and eighty drink combinations, which offers diversity to the consumers. In addition, they have touch screens and consumers could play a game as they await their order, which provides customers with recreational facility; therefore, increasing customer satisfaction. Intrinsically, the firm gives customers free internet access through their Wi-Fi connections in several stores in Austria, Switzerland and Germany (Melissa, 2008).

            The organization embraces environmentally safe practices because it understands that the environment must be protected at all times. Starbucks serves its clients the best quality coffee across all its stores in the world. In addition, the firm ventures in saving natural lands for coffee growing. It has invested heavily in Mexican coffee growing areas to maintain high quality coffee beans (Melissa, 2008).

            According to IMC regulations for most multinational organizations, they must adhere to the laws of the countries. Laws dealing with areas such as safety, health, employment, anti-trust, consumer and discrimination are all important for Starbucks’ success. The firm respects court decisions in addition to using legal means to protect infringing on its properties such as the logo. It has been involved in several court cases in countries such as China where it sued Xingbake in Shanghai for logo infringement. Moreover, the management does not discuss any matters, which are before the courts (Tice, 2014).

            In addition to providing high quality coffee to its customers, Starbucks has been able to increase its client reach through human connections. Ideally, “Embracing the position as product quality leader and industry segment leader, Starbucks does not aggressively market the company through traditional means but instead focuses almost entirely on high-level marketing and branding of word-of-mouth and key alliances and partnerships” (Lingley, 2009, p. 4). These alliances have helped Starbucks in investing in several countries in the world. The firm entered into an alliance with NAACP, to increase customer share in the coffee business. Starbucks gave donations to NAACP to promote events for marketing its products (Anonymous, 2006). In addition, it is in partnership with several other organizations such as Barnes and Noble bookstores, PepsiCo, United Airlines, Kraft foods among others. The partnerships are ideal for increasing customer awareness on the firm’s products through distribution of mugs bearing the Starbucks’ logo. In addition, the partners increase accessibility for the organization’s products and services across the globe.

            In essence, as a market leader in the coffee business, Starbucks has invested in several states across the world since its inception in 1971. Analysis on the firms activities reveal that the firm adheres to genuine practices as it tries to increase customer share. Starbucks respects laws and politics for countries which it has interests. In addition, the organization respects the environment by saving natural lands for growing coffee. Moreover, the firm has collaborated with several organizations as it tries to reach as many clients as possible. These partnerships take the organization’s products closer to the people thus ensuring client loyalty and increased sales. Consequently, the organization does not use traditional marketing methods because they have failed in many other firms.

  • Traditional Media

Starbucks understands the need to stick to traditional marketing techniques, which involve radio, television and billboards. Consequently, the management ensures that it has huge and colorful billboards in any major entry point in a country that the organization has interests. Moreover, the organization places the same billboards in major highways of these states. Notably, most of the billboards are eye-catching which means that any passerby would be interested in understanding what the firm has in offer. Most of the adverts portray customers enjoying the wide variety of products offered by the firm.

On the other hand, radio offers an easy access to many clients especially those who do not have access to Internet. The commercials are easy to understand because the narrators ensure that they have a connection with the target market by revealing the excellent taste that the products offer. At the same time, Starbucks uses television to promote its products across a wide range of clients irrespective of their locations. The adverts on TV are different video clips collected from several stores showing clients enjoying their favorite products from the company. Furthermore, the ads reveal that the products are healthy and as a result, anyone could use them at all times. Healthy eating is a major medical problem affecting very many people across the globe especially in Europe and the United States. Consequently, Starbucks has taken advantage of this revelation to market its products by showing physically fit clients yet enjoying the firm’s products regularly.

  • Internet

Since its incorporation in 1971, Starbucks Corporation has been providing healthy drinks to its clients. With innovation of social media, the organization has invested enough resources to create accounts on both twitter and Facebook with real people answering to clients’ questions. In addition, the organization posts enough tweets on its twitter account to update clients on any new products and services in the market. The posts are interesting especially because some of them are created like jokes thus drawing readers’ attention. On the other hand, according to Pozin (2014), the management of Starbucks Corporation understands the importance of real time communication with its clients. Since most people across the world have access to the internet, social media, especially Facebook and twitter provides an ideal platform for gathering information.

Facebook and twitter are ideal for the organization because they have millions of subscribers across the world. Consequently, the organization has been growing its client base through use of the social media sites (PR Newswire, 2014). In essence, Starbucks Corporation has a team that responds to clients’ questions promptly on anything about their services. Consequently, client satisfaction has been on the rise while the organization is more efficient. The organization subscription to twitter and Facebook is ideal for its operations because of the high number of subscribers on the two across the world.

However, Starbucks Corporation needs to increase more client responses and comments on the sites because it cannot rely on what the staff tells the clients. Ideally, majority of clients trust more what other customers have to say as opposed to responses from the staff. In addition, it should increase the number of real people on the sites to reduce communication time between staff and passengers. Moreover, the number of highlights on changes in flights should be increased because clients have to know what is happening in the market at all times. At the same time, Nestle should increase the number of photos of its products detailing their nutritious value. Ideally, clients would be happy to understand why Starbucks Corporation foods are ideal for the whole family. At the same time, the organization needs to invest in other social media networks such as LinkedIn and Instagram because they have followers across the world.

  • Direct Marketing

Intrinsically, the management of Starbucks Corporation has realized the importance of direct marketing for it ensures that the firm reaches clients on the streets. Ideally, such customers act as the firm’s advocates by referring their friends and relatives to the company’s stores. Accordingly, the firm realizes increased sales albeit spending lesser resources in its quest to introduce new products and services that the corporation has to offer. Word of mouth has proved to be an essential marketing tool for Starbucks because their friends bring majority of new clients to their stores for the first time. Innately, this reduces marketing expenses, which are associated with other firms in the same business. Starbucks enters into partnerships with other established outlets in the destination country. For example, in 2013, “The first Starbucks inside Danish Supermarket opened in August 2013 in the department stores Salling in Aalborg and Aarhus” (Lingley, 2009, p. 4). Outstandingly, the firm saved marketing resources for it placed its products in an outlet that the target market trusts. 

  • Sales Promotion

Although Starbucks is a well renowned organization in the coffee business, the management ensures that it embraces sales promotion tactics in its IMC strategies. For example, “In 2003, after struggling with fierce local competition, Starbucks closed all six of its locations in Israel, citing "on-going operational challenges" and a "difficult business environment” (Anonymous, 2006). The management realized that the political situation in Israel could not allow promotional gigs to happen in the society. The organization has entered into partnerships with other firms where it promotes its products at a lower cost. Essentially, the firm has branded coffee mugs in major airline companies in the United States. Importantly, the mugs draw clients’ attention to the firm’s products; whereas the firm has promoters based at major streets to beat the competition. They offer free samples to clients in order to encourage them to be taking their beverages. Some of the competitors create advertise that show that the company’s products are unhealthy but Starbucks counters this negativity by offering proving that its products are the best through sales promotion whereby clients interact with employees on one-to-one basis. Most importantly, clients are always happy when they have a chance to talk directly to employees for they have all their questions answered thus reducing any doubts that the clients could have had on the products.   It is worth noting that Starbucks adheres to all legalities before holding any sales promotions according to the country’s laws; therefore reducing chances of legal suits that could tarnish the brands name among the people.

  • Public Relations (PR)

Intrinsically, Starbucks is a multinational organization, which means that it has employees and clients from different cultural backgrounds. Consequently, the management ensures that its PR is in a position to meet the needs of all the people that its serves. Although each store acts as an autonomous entity, it ensures that the clients’ needs are met always by employing workers who rhyme with their needs. For example, in China, the organization employs young managers because most of the customers are middle-aged persons. On the other hand, in the United States majority of the employees are older because the target market is comprised of older people. As a result, the organization manages to serve client’s interests despite their cultural beliefs and ideals. Moreover, all employees are treated equally by promoting the best performers in addition to offering other incentives that ensure that the firm remains competitive. The management does not sit back to enjoy its dominance in the market because it understands that their competitors are watching closely for any chances to overtake the firm. The CEO, Howard Schultz, “has talked about making sure growth does not dilute the company's culture and the common goal of the company's leadership to act like a small company” (Lingley, 2009, p. 5). In essence, the organization does not shy away from replacing any employee who does not perform as per the expectations. For instance, in 2008, Jim Donald was replaced as the CEO after sales went down. His successor Schultz promised to work towards restoring the “distinctive Starbucks experience” because he does not want customers to feel that they can get the same services from the competition. Innately, the prices of raw materials have been changing over the years but the management ensures that it sources its coffee beans from reputable suppliers who do not overcharge them; thus offering customers the best coffee at a reasonable price. Restructuring is an ideal process for any organization that aspires to remain competitive in business and as a result, Starbucks changes employees in any region that sales are going down. In addition, the organization obeys the rule of law by reporting any cases of infringement to their property rights by their competitors.


As a market leader in the coffee business, Starbucks uses IMC to ensure sustainability. Communication is very important for the success of any organization and as a result, Starbucks has embraced all marketing methods to ensure that its products are well known by the target market. Notably, producing a new product and failing to advertise it is equivalent to blinking in the darkness because no one would notice it. Consequently, Starbucks invests resources in creating product awareness to the target market because this increases sales and guarantees sustainability. Although the firm faces stiff competition from firms such as Xingbake and Costa Coffee, it has been able to withstand the challenges by providing the best high quality coffee sourced from natural coffee growing areas. In addition, the firm does not overcharge for its products despite the fact that they are unique. Innately, most people across the globe have access to internet, which shows why the firm uses the social media in marketing its products. Notably, the social media is cheap and reaches a very large number of people within the shortest time possible. On the other hand, Starbucks uses traditional marketing techniques such as radio, word of mouth, television and sales promotions to increase its market share across the world. Consequently, the firm has been growing rapidly and expanding its services since its incorporation in 1971. The CEO is determined to ensure that the competition cannot match the services that Starbucks offers.





Anonymous. (2006). Starbucks commits $2.5 million over five years to NAACP; strategic alliance affirms Starbucks commitment to diverse organizations: Business Wire. Retrieved 24 Oct. 2014

Jaffee, D. (2007). Brewing Justice: Fair Trade Coffee, Sustainability and Survival. California: University of California Press.

Lingley, R. (2009). "Marketing Strategy and Alliances Analysis of Starbucks Corporation." Faculty Publications and Presentations: Paper 10:1-10.

Melissa, A. (2008). "Starbucks co-founder talks about early days, launching Redhook and Seattle Weekly, too.” Business and Technology.

Pozin, I. (2014). "Forbes Magazine." 20 Companies You Should Be Following On Social Media. Retrieved 13 Nov. from

PR Newswire. (2014). Nestlé’s Effectiveness of Digital and Social Media Marketing Strategies and Innovations. Retrieved 13 Nov. 2014 from

Renard, M. (2010). "In the Name of Conservation: CAFE Practices and Fair Trade in Mexico". Journal of Business Ethics, 92: 287–299.

Roark, M. (2014). "Payment Systems, Consumer Tragedy and Ineffective Remedies". St. Johns Law Review, 86: 21-26.

Tice, C. (2014). "Starbucks still seeking a rhythm for Circadia". Puget Sound Business Journal, 2(4): 23-34. 

Published in Marketing


Case Study


Change is very important in healthcare organizations. The organization structure that can be affected by change according to Rose (2009) include hierarchical structure, communication patterns, relationships, and existing coordination between departments and management levels. The change in the structure of an organization is a common change in the healthcare industry and it will be explored further in this essay. The example of change discussed in this case is that of incorporation of person centred nursing that requires change of the organization culture in order to effectively incorporate the change. This would involve changing the time dressing is done so as to improve the quality of health care offered.

Change in Organization Structure: Person Centred Practice

There are different areas that require change in the nursing practice in order to improve on quality of health care services. One of the nursing practices requiring change is the mode of practice in which the patients are put in the centre of their own treatment and care. This is because improving quality in the health care services offered by nurses requires active participation of the patients. Person-centred practice according to McCormack, Dewing &McCance (2011) “is treatment and care provided by health services that places the person at the centre of their own care and considers the needs of the older person’s carers”. This implies that person-cantered care is not only about the needs and interests of the patient but also those of the close family members and carers.  

Person-centred practice can be achieved through a number of ways as the nurse interacts and gets to know his patients better. Understanding the health and healthcare of the involved patients is very important. A nurse manager who demonstrates professionalism, respects self and others, and pays attention to the needs of the patients and their families is able to understand the needs of the populations he works with and help them prepare for any change (Weiner, Irwin, Trangenstein& Gordon, 2005). In this case, the nurse does not work solely but with the help of the patients and other people involved to improve their health and wellbeing. This way, the patients and their families are actively involved in their care.    

Person-centred practice is possible with effective communication. Effective communication is very important in nursing practice. It involves the passing of information between the nurse and the patient, the family members, and caregivers (Beardsley, Kimberlin&Tindall, 2013). Effective communication is very important for nurse managers since it ensures that they pass the intended message in a clear manner and the passed message is understood by all the people involved. The patient also feels that the people who matter in her life are not left out in the treatment process as the nurse manager communicates to them in a clear and understandable manner. The nurse manager is also able to maintain a healthy relationship with the patients and their family members through effective communication, which is vital in improving the wellbeing and health of the patients (Kourkouta&Papathanasiou, 2014). 

The Change Process

            Incorporation of a person-centred practice program in the healthcare organization involves change of the organization culture as employees including the management will be required to do things differently. This calls for high quality management in which the patients are given the first priority since the health of patients is of great importance in healthcare organizations (Forman, 2011). The hospital staff understands that the needs of the patients should be incorporated in the patient care offered in order to realize satisfaction. Patients have for long been taken for granted in most hospitals and other healthcare organizations in which they are regarded as passive participants in the treatment process. As noted by Rosenthal et al (2000), in most cases, patients are not consulted whenever a patient care practice is to be conducted. This makes some resist and fail to follow the orders given. While some patients fail to turn up for appointments, others do not take the drugs as prescribed and this worsens their situation. Weiner (2003) notes that with patients involved actively in the patient care process, they feel a part of the decisions made and this makes them follow all the guidelines given. 

            The health care organization should change the current culture of dressing the patients at 5.00am since this affects the quality of health care offered. Both the nurses and patients should be contacted to identify other better timelines when dressing can be done so that high quality care is offered. Since nurses are the ones carrying out the dressing task, they should be consulted so that they offer alternative periods when they can carry out the same task. However, in order for the change to ensure person-centered practiced is adhered to, the patients should be involved.  

Models and Tools Supporting Engagement and Collaboration for Practice Change

The best theory in this case is the transition theory by William Bridges, which explains how people can successfully undergo the change process. It is based on the knowledge that change is inevitable and thus nurses have to learn on how to do things better. They need to learn new ways to improve patient care. The model is effective because it does not focus on the change but on the transition process. This is view is supported by Duchscher (2009) that the transition process is required during the change process since a person has to transition from the state of affairs before the change to the new state of affairs after the change. Transition is in the nurse’s mind and therefore the mind has to be prepared to accept change.    

This model has three stages namely the ending, losing and letting go, the neutral zone, and the new beginning. This theory is important because it explains how people need to transition to align with the changing process. While change is external, a nurse can control and manage what is inside her to accept change (Beecroft, 2006). This theory fits the change process in the nursing field because successful transition during any change process is vital in the nursing practice. Nurses should learn to actively involve the patients in the treatment process, which might be different from what they are used to. They should learn to work closely with the patient’s family members so that the treatment process becomes more effective and improves the health of the patients, which is the major role of nurses (Cummings& Worley, 2014). They should also learn the important needs and values that patients wish were considered in the treatment process.


There are different areas that require change in the nursing practice in order to improve on quality of health care services. One of the nursing practices requiring change is the mode of practice in which the patients are put in the centre of their own treatment and care. This is because improving quality in the health care services offered by nurses requires active participation of the patients. Change is mandatory and thus people should be prepared for it. As a result, nurses should be encouraged by a supportive organization culture that will ensure that are adequately informed of the necessity of the change and the benefits it will bring.





Beardsley, R. S., Kimberlin, C. L., &Tindall, W. N. (2013).Communication skills in pharmacy practice: A practical guide for students and practitioners. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Beecroft, P. C. et al. (2006). New graduate nurses’ perceptions of mentoring: Six-year programme evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nursing,55(6), 736-747

Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014).Organization development and change. New York: Cengage Learning.

Duchscher, J. E. B. (2009). Transition shock: The initial stage of role adaptation for newly graduated Registered Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(5), 1103-1113.

Forman, H. (2011). Nursing leadership for patient-centered care: Authenticity, presence, intuition, expertise. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.

Kourkouta, L., &Papathanasiou, I. V. (2014). Communication in nursing practice.Mater Sociomed., 26(1), 65-67.

McCormack, B., Dewing, J., &McCance, T., (2011). Developing person-centred care: Addressing contextual challenges through practice development. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(2), Manuscript 3.

Rose, R. G. (2009). New building, new expectations: The influence of structural change on organizational culture. London: ProQuest.

Rosenthal, C. J., Marshall, V. W., Macpherson, A. S., & French, S. E. (2000).Nurses, patients and families.Londres: Croom Helm.

Weiner, E., Irwin, M., Trangenstein, P., & Gordon, J. (2005).Emergency preparedness curriculum in nursing schools in the United States.Nursing Education Perspectives, 26(6), 334-339.

Weiner, I. B. (2003).Handbook of psychology: 9. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.


Published in case study
Sunday, 05 December 2021 07:37

Developing a Nursing Residency Program

Developing a Nursing Residency Program



Change in the organizations depends on the four key components of organizations namely structure, technology, people, and tasks. Changing any of these components affects the entire organization and there is therefore need of coming up with change management strategies. The organization has to come up with ways of preventing resistance of change and enabling effective change implementation. People in organizations as noted by Cummings and Worley (2014) are the employees in an organization and include the management and the junior staff. A change in this case might involve of hiring a new supervisor. Change can also occur in terms of technology. According to Kondalkar (2010), organizations need to embrace new and advanced technology in order to succeed in the competitive market.

In the healthcare industry, nurses need to embrace new technology in order to improve quality of health care services. Change can also be noted in the tasks an organization performs. In this case, employees would be required to perform different tasks from the ones they are used to. Lastly, change in organizations can be noted in the structure of the organization. The organization structure that can be affected by change according to Rose (2009) include hierarchical structure, communication patterns, relationships, and existing coordination between departments and management levels. The change in the structure of an organization is a common change in the healthcare industry and it will be explored further in this essay. The example of change discussed in this case is that of developing a nursing residency program that requires change of the organization culture in order to effectively incorporate the change.



Change in Organization Structure: Developing a Nursing Residency Program

            In most case, change in the organization structure affects the organization culture. According to Schein (2010, p. 39), an organization culture is defined as “a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs, which governs how people behave in organizations”. The shared beliefs and values strongly influence the dressing, acting, and performing of jobs by employees in an organization. As noted by Schabracq (2009), an organization culture comprises of seven major characteristics that are likely to lead to resistance to change is the change is not adequately and effectively planned.  These characteristics are innovation known as risk orientation, attention to details known as precision orientation, emphasis on outcome known as achievement orientation, emphasis on people known as fairness orientation, teamwork known as collaboration orientation, aggressiveness known as competition orientation, and stability known as rule orientations (Msoroka, 2013). A healthcare organization just like any other organization needs to understand its unique culture in order to come up with an effective way of managing change.

There are different areas that require change in the nursing practice in order to improve on quality of health care services. The nursing practice requiring change is the orientation process required by new nurses. This is because fresh nurse graduates are scared of their positions as they feel that they are not prepared enough to start the nursing tasks assigned to them. There is need of a nursing residency program as argued Cameron and Green (2004, p. 15). A nursing residency program should help nurses in the transition process into the practice area after graduating from nursing colleges. According to Duchscher (2009), after graduation, nurses are less qualified or less competent in their areas of practice. As a result, they need preparation so that their transition process is guided by confidence and courage. They need to be sure of what is expected of them in the nursing practice and be confident that they would deliver to the expectations. Healthcare organizations should thus come up with a nursing residency program that helps nurses transition from nursing colleges to the real nursing practice.

It is notable that there is a great gap between the completion of nursing school and getting ready to attend to the patients. There is thus need of an effective strategy that will help nurses transition from the nursing school to the nursing practice area. This can be done by provision of nursing residency programs According to Duchscher (2009, p. 56), “RN residency programs are emerging as a ‘best practice’ in today’s nursing world”. Even though clinical rotation in the nursing school should fulfill the role of transition, they are unable to because the healthcare organizations where nurses work are very complex. After graduation, nurses get to a very different sector that requires that they practice what they have studied in theory.

The need for the residency programs is not only driven by the complexity of the hospitals but also by the issue of shortage of nurses as well. Shortage is brought about by high turnover rates among other factors. It is important to come up with ways that will help reduce the turnover rate. According to Provost and Murray (2011), the turnover rate for nurses during their first year in practice ranges from 35-60%. Nurses are not prepared enough for the responsibilities in their hospitals leading to stress and eventually dissatisfaction, which affects the long-term retention aspect. They are not willing to remain in jobs in which they are not satisfied and thus decide to quit.

A residency program is noted to work miracles for nurses. This was experienced at White Memorial Medical Center in which the overall retention rated after implementing a residency program was 65%, with 90% retention in the first year and 80% in the second (Robinson, Gould &Strosahl, 2011). This implies that residency programs are beneficial for the organizations and thus should be implemented by more hospitals. After the implementation of the residency programs, nurses have more refined skills resulting from the increased confidence. The residency program is important at a time in which a lot of resources have been invested in nursing schools resulting to hospitals hiring great number of fresh nurses at once. The residency program is meant to produce committed, confident, satisfied, and competent nurses. White Memorial Medical Center has improved confidence, enhanced competency, and increased satisfaction in nurses through the residency program.

The Change Process

            Incorporation of a nursing residency program in the healthcare organization involves change of the organization culture as employees including the management will be required to do things differently. With a nursing residency program, nurses will not be expected to start working immediately after they are hired. They are required to take time in the residency program from where they are prepared to take their roles in the nursing profession. This change will affect the human resource department (hiring team) more because they will be required to change the hiring process to ensure that new nurses are incorporated into the healthcare organization before they can start work (Beecroft et al, 2006). The HRM departments/ team should thus be adequately prepared and informed of the change to prevent resistance.

This residency program if effectively planned and implemented will act as a learning and development tool for new nurses. The first step for the HRM (hiring team) would be to identify the qualifying new nurses who are required to fill the vacant positions in the healthcare organization. It should be conducted by the HR manager and hiring team in the organizationsince they understand the skills and talents required for the vacant positions. However, the hiring team should understand that the new nurses would not get direct to the nursing practice. The hiring team should thus be prepared for this change. As a result, the second stage would involve training of the mentors and support team who will aid the fresh nurses in the transition process. This training process should be foreseen by at least two experienced RNs who are aware of the needs of new nurse graduates and are able to pass the same information to the mentors and the support team. The mentors should be able to guide the new nurses in the transition process and solve any issues that arise (Campbell, 2008). They should be able to help nurses in any problems they face or foresee to be of issues when they get into the nursing practice.

The third stage would involve the transition process. In this stage, the hiring team would group the new nurses into teams that will enable them help each other in the transition process. This grouping involves introduction and orientation of the nurses to the organization, to their superiors, and to each other. It will also involve introduction to the nursing practice in the real world with the nurses being taught of what they expect in their practice (Molinari & Bushy, 2012). They are also introduced to the different tasks they will be engaged in. this is followed by assigning each individual nurse to a mentor and a preceptor who will help in the transition process. The preceptor and mentor acts as a guide in the transition process. They are meant to introduce and guide the nurses through their roles.

Next will be the mentoring process or the transition process. In this process, the nurses will work together and assist each other in problem solving. The preceptor will help the nurses assigned to him to create a routine that will ensure improved competency, commitment, confidence, and satisfaction. Confidence is among the major tenets that new nurses require at this stage (Campbell, 2008). They need to be sure of themselves so that they can succeed in the nursing process. The last step is the evaluation of the program. This is done after the transition process is over and involves evaluation based on nurse performance, stress management, and satisfaction levels with one’s status and pay.          

Workplace Cultures and the Factors Which May Sustain or Resist the Evolution of Cultures of Learning and Development

Learning and development in the nursing profession is a continuous process. According to McCormack, Manley and Wilson (2008), nurses have to continuously broaden their knowledge in order to provide high quality care. This implies that after nurses are transitioned into the nursing practice, they should not be overconfident with themselves and fail to indulge in more research. As learners, nurses should continuously enhance their professional skills and expertise through academic learning and research so as to offer quality services that are satisfying to the patients. In order to ensure good practice, nurses should be transitioned into the nursing practice and then encouraged to improve their intellectual bases, philosophical bases, and theoretical knowledge. As a result, nurses are expected to expand their nursing knowledge using a checks and balance mechanism (Batalden& Kerrigan, 2010). This is because in the nursing field, nurses have to encounter new and changing situations that they are not used to.

It is possible that nurses can use the same nursing practices to handle recurrent situations. However, this is not the case in most instances since change is inevitable. In the time of disasters for instance, nurses are required to come up with new ways of handling the situation before they jeopardize the health of the people involved. It is therefore arguable that nurses should strengthen the link between practice, philosophy, theory, and disciplinary goals (Finkelman& Kenner, 2010). This implies that nurses are required to expand their knowledge base and apply what is learned in the nursing practice so as to perform their roles effectively. As noted by Robinson, Gould and Strosahl (2011), nurses should continuously search for new knowledge because even with their qualification as nurses on the time of graduation, they would be faced with different situations that require nursing practices that were not learned. This requires behavioral therapy in which nurses change their nursing practices to fit the changing situations.

Nevertheless, not all workplace cultures would allow effective learning and development of the nurses. Similarly, not all workplace cultures would allow the transition process. Even though both practices are noted to be advantageous, they are still resisted by some workplace cultures. This happens when the organization is not adequately prepared for change and the change management process is poor. An organization culture that does not support effective communication is also a good source of change resistance. Even with the benefits of learning and development for nurses, the nurses would not be ready to accept change because it is not adequately communicated. The organization culture should ensure that all necessary information regarding the change is communicated to all the affected nurses and encourage them to raise complaints and questions that should be answered to satisfaction levels. The nurses should receive accurate and first-hand information from the top management so that they are aware of what the change entails (McCormack, Manley &Titchen, 2013).

An organizational culture that supports self-interest is also a major cause of resistance to change in the learning and development. This happens when nurses do not benefit from the learning process. For instance, the culture could be in a manner that it supports only learning of the senior managers. The organization can also allow managers to act in their own self-interest that does not align with the organization’s goals (Chang & Daly, 2012). This way, nurses would consider the planned change as a threat. 

Nurses would also resist change if the organization culture makes them feel excluded or they lack trust in the management. An organization culture would make nurses feel excluded in times of heightened bureaucracy in which nurses do not freely interact with the management. Nurses in this case do not feel as part of the organization and any changed that is planned in the organization makes them nervous. Nurses can also fail to trust the key decision makers in the healthcare organization. This way, they do not trust any planned organizational changes even if it involves the transition process as well as learning and development, which is meant to benefit them. Nurses would consider this change as negative and leading to the loss of their jobs and thus be resisted(Temple, 2012). It is therefore advisable to understand the organizational culture factors that might lead to resistance to change and address them.

Models and Tools Supporting Engagement and Collaboration for Practice Change

The best theory in this case is the transition theory by William Bridges, which explains how people can successfully undergo the change process. It is based on the knowledge that change is inevitable and thus nurses have to learn on how to do things better. They need to learn how to transition from the nursing college to the nursing practice. They also need to learn new ways to improve patient care. The model is effective because it does not focus on the change but on the transition process. This is view is supported by Duchscher (2009) that the transition process is required during the change process since a person has to transition from the state of affairs before the change to the new state of affairs after the change. Transition is in the nurse’s mind and therefore the mind has to be prepared to accept change.

This model has three stages namely the ending, losing and letting go, the neutral zone, and the new beginning. The people who easily accept change move to the new beginning stage with ease and at a fast rate than those resisting change. This theory is important because it explains how people need to transition to align with the changing process. While change is external, a nurse can control and manager what is inside her to accept change (Beecroft, 2006). This theory fits the change process in the nursing field because successful transition is recommended for fresh nurse graduates into the nursing practice. They should be prepared to fit into the real nursing practice, which is not the same as what is learned in class. They have to work independently without the close help of their instructors as it was in college. During their rotation classes, they are used to instructors and preceptors who are around them all the time helping them with even the smallest challenges faced.

Change is also mandatory in the nursing practice as nurses have to keep in pace with the changing technology that requires continuous learning to offer high quality care. Nurses need to transition from one way of doing things to a different way, which is considered more effective for the healthcare organization. For instance, nurses would be required to transition from use of paper records to electronic health records, which have numerous benefits. In this case, the nurses would be required to be prepared to learn how to use the new electronic health records. This is part of change that can be necessitated using the transition model. Nurses should be helped through the transition stages to reach the new beginning stage within the shortest time possible so that this change does not compromise their nursing practice (Burton &Ormrod, 2011). This is because even with the change in place, nurses are required to continue with their normal nursing practice.




Change and development is inevitable in healthcare organizations. Nurses are continuously graduation from nursing colleges and joining the nursing practice. The nursing practice in healthcare organizations is different from the theory learned in classes. Even though nurses are involved in the rotation classes, they are dependent on the instructors and preceptors who are always on their side. This is different from what they find in the nursing practice in which they have to learn to handle some issues on their own. They require confidence at this instance that will boost their qualification and skills. This is because from the nursing colleges, nurses are qualified to take roles in the nursing practice. However, they lack confidence that will convince them that they are qualified and able to handle the assigned roles. The organization structure should thus be in such a way that it supports the transition process of new nurses into the organization. They should not be pushed straight to assuming their nursing roles but rather guided through the transition process to garner the required confidence. Nurses are also required to be prepared for other changes that they face during their practice. Change is mandatory and thus people should be prepared for it. As a result, nurses should be encouraged by a supportive organization culture that will ensure that are adequately informed of the necessity of the change and the benefits it will bring. If possible, the nurses should be involved in the change planning process. They should also be helped through the change transition process because the sooner they get to the new beginning phase as explained in the transition model, the better for the organization. Nurses should also be encouraged to be continuously involved in learning and development of their nursing practice so that they are prepared for the change. The organization culture should support continuous learning of the nurses.     



Batalden, P. B., & Kerrigan, C. L. (2010).Lesson learned in changing healthcare: --and how we learned from. Toronto: Longwoods Pub.

Beecroft, P. C. et al. (2006). New graduate nurses’ perceptions of mentoring: Six-year programme evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nursing,55(6), 736-747

Burton, R., &Ormrod, G. (2011).Nursing: Transition to professional practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2004).Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. London [u.a.: Kogan Page.

Campbell, R. J. (2008). Change management in healthcare. The Health Care Manager,27(1), 23-39.

Chang, E., & Daly, J. (2012).Transitions in nursing: Preparing for professional practice. Chatswood, N.S.W: Elsevier Australia.

Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014).Organization development and change. New York: Cengage Learning.

Duchscher, J. E. B. (2009). Transition shock: The initial stage of role adaptation for newly graduated Registered Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(5), 1103-1113.

Finkelman, A. W., & Kenner, C. (2010).Professional nursing concepts: Competencies for quality leadership. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Kondalkar, V. G. (2010). Organization effectiveness and change management. London: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

McCormack, B., Manley, K.& Wilson, V. (2008).International practice development in nursing and health care.London: Blackwell.

McCormack, B., Manley, K.,&Titchen, A. (2013).Practice development in nursing and health care.London: Wiley-Blackwell.

Molinari, D., & Bushy, A. (2012). The rural nurse: Transition to practice. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Msoroka, M. (2013).Organizational culture: Its implications to educational institutions.S.l.: Grin Verlag.

Provost, L. P., & Murray, S. K. (2011).The health care data guide: Learning from data for improvement. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Robinson, P., Gould, D., &Strosahl, K. (2011).Real Behavior Change in Primary Care: Improving Patient Outcomes and Increasing Job Satisfaction. New York: New Harbinger Publications.

Rose, R. G. (2009). New building, new expectations: The influence of structural change on organizational culture. London: ProQuest.

Schabracq. M. J. (2009). Changing organizational culture: The change agent’s guidebook. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Temple, J. (2012). Becoming a registered nurse: Making the transition to practice. Boston: SAGE Publications.




Published in Nursing
Sunday, 05 December 2021 07:36

Usury in Jewish During the Holocaust/Ghettos

Usury in Jewish During the Holocaust/Ghettos


            Many people believe that Jews spread across Europe before the holocaust was involved in usury; as such, they created many enemies across their communities such that no one was willing to rescue them after the Nazis started to exterminate them. Interestingly, Jews were merchants with their services spread across many countries in Europe. The fact that had huge amounts of cash led them to become moneylenders; however, the Christian community of the medieval times regarded this aspect as immoral and heinous. In essence, Christians believed that the Jews took advantage of those in need to make a profit through the provision of soft loans that drew interests. On the contrary, Jesus Christ was a symbol of poverty, generosity, chastity, and non-materialism (, 2015). In that respect, any person who was engaged in the business was viewed as greedy because they could not help those in need in their communities.

Usury in Jews

            Before the 19th century, anti-Semitism targeted Jews only because they were viewed as a distinct religious group that deserved hatred from all other groups. These beliefs were based on their spiritual teachings, which did not agree with the strong catholic teachings of the times. In effect, they experienced sporadic expulsions and persecutions as the people sought to have a world without them. In that effect, some Europeans countries created ghettos, which were exclusive to Jews in order to segregate them from the society. Some of the earliest European ghettos especially in Spain and Portugal date far back as the 14 century. The Jews’ merchant success created enmity with other racial groups because they believed that the Jews were only after material wealth and nothing could stop them to acquire more wealth at the expense of other people in the society.

            On the other hand, discrimination of Jews and fact that they could not own land in any part of Europe meant that they had little ways to make any money. In that respect, they became traders and usurers to sustain their livelihoods because they could not have anywhere to practice farming. Such occurrences created a lasting enmity between the Jews and other dominant religions in Europe such as Islam. They were targeted for any calamity that befell the people despite the fact that most of the accusations were unfounded. The Jews did not have any rights and as a result, they could not sustain their lives without engaging in businesses that were seen as immoral and effects of greed by all the other people in their communities (, 2015). The Jews were enormously successful economic wise and thus had vast resources, which they could lend to their neighbors for a fee. The neighbors did not take these actions lightly and engaged in spreading hatred against the Jews.

            Migchels (2014) agrees that capitalism started with the Jews because of their desire to create a rich few at the expense of mass poverty. To enrich themselves, the Jews practiced all forms of trade that could bring profits and amass their wealth without caring for the needs of their neighbors. The Jews never saw anything wrong with usury because it was in terms of a willing seller willing buyer situations. However, their methods to recoup debts from the society were cruel especially for anyone who could not afford to pay their debts in time. Migchels (2014) notes,

“Modern Capitalism was first clearly visible in the Dutch Republic, where Italian Banking, expelled Iberian Jews, the Reformation, naval power and the acquisition of huge trade fortunes came together in the Amsterdam Empire, which would outshine its much bigger Spanish, British and even French competitors until the mid-seventeenth century.”

The Jews are charged with the crime of inventing capitalism because of their involvement in businesses that did not agree with the people of the 19th century. Consequently, all the other communities believed that the Jews were responsible for all the misfortunes that the societies faced.

            The Jews ensured that they kept money scarce in the populace to access cheap labor. Such beliefs did not go down well with other communities because the desired societies that valued equitable distribution of resources. Ideally, usury cannot thrive in communities where all people have access to all basic needs because no one would be willing to take up expensive loans to finance their daily activities. The success of Jews in business ventures ensured that they controlled the economy of the countries that they resided in (, 2015).


            Even though Christianity outlawed any form of usury, the Jews lived in free and peaceful ghettos where they practiced any form of trade, which could earn them profit. Jews took up the opportunities because other communities did not have the right to practice such immoral business. According to the Jews, they were doing a public well by providing the less fortunate with loans, which they could use to acquire life’s necessities and repay them later when things improved. In brief, Jews invented capitalism, which is the most common practice in the world today.




Migchels, A. (2014). Capitalism Is Jewish Usury. Real Currencies. Retrieved 23 April 2015, from (2015). Who are the Jews? |. Retrieved 23 April 2015, from

Published in History
Sunday, 05 December 2021 07:35

Care, Cure, Core Theory by Lydia Hall

Care, Cure, Core Theory by Lydia Hall



Nursing theory according to Lydia Hall is nothing short of revolutionary. In a time of change and revolution (1960’s), she put down in her own simple words, her thoughts about nursing. She did not consider herself a nurse theorist, but instead talked about her views of nursing care as she learned it over the years with the influence of Lillian Wald, Carl Rogers, John Dewey, and many others in her articles, Hall talks about her Loeb Center for Nursing Rehabilitation from the perspective of director. She put down in her own simple words, her thoughts about nursing. She did not consider herself a nurse theorist, but instead talked about her transparent thoughts and remarkable ideas of nursing care as she learned it over the years. These lead to the development of her “Care, Cure, Core Theory,” also known as the “Three Cs of Lydia Hall.” Hall’s theory define Nursing as the “participation in care, core and cure aspects of patient care, where CARE is the sole function of nurses, whereas the CORE and CURE are shared with other members of the health team.” The major purpose of care is to achieve an interpersonal relationship with the individual that will facilitate the development of the core.

Major Concepts

The individual human who is 16 years of age or older and past the acute stage of a long-term illness is the focus of nursing care in Hall’s work. The source of energy and motivation for healing is the individual care recipient, not the health care provider. Hall emphasizes the importance of the individual as unique, capable of growth and learning, and requiring a total person approach. Health can be inferred to be a state of self-awareness with conscious selection of behaviors that are optimal for that individual. Hall stresses the need to help the person explore the meaning of his or her behavior to identify and overcome problems through developing self-identity and maturity (Alligood & Tomey, 2010).

The concept of society/environment is dealt with in relation to the individual. Hall is credited with developing the concept of Loeb Center because she assumed that the hospital environment during treatment of acute illness creates a difficult psychological experience for the ill individual. Center focuses on providing an environment that is conducive to self-development. In such a setting, the focus of the action of the nurses is the individual, so that any actions taken in relation to society or environment are for the purpose of assisting the individual in attaining a personal goal. Nursing is identified as consisting of participation in the care, core, and cure aspects of patient care.


The Care Principle

It represents the nurturing component of nursing and is exclusive to nursing. Nurturing involves using the factors that make up the concept of mothering (care and comfort of the person) and provide for teaching-learning activities. The professional nurse provides bodily care for the patient and helps the patient complete such basic daily biological functions as eating, bathing, elimination, and dressing. When providing this care, the nurse’s goal is the comfort of the patient. Providing care for a patient at the basic needs level presents the nurse and patient with an opportunity for closeness. As closeness develops, the patient can share and explore feelings with the nurse.

The Core Principle

It is based in the social sciences, involves the therapeutic use of self, and is shared with other members of the health team. The professional nurse, by developing an interpersonal relationship with the patient, is able to help the patient verbally express feelings regarding the disease process and its effects. Through such expression, the patient is able to gain self-identity and further develop maturity. The professional nurse, by the use of reflective technique (acting as a mirror to the patient), helps the patient look at and explore feelings regarding his or her current health status and related potential changes in lifestyle. Motivations are discovered through the process of bringing into awareness the feelings being experienced. With this awareness, the patient is now able to make conscious decisions based on understood and accepted feelings and motivation.


The Cure Principle

It is based in the pathological and therapeutic sciences and is shared with other members of the health team. During this aspect of nursing care, the nurse is an active advocate of the patient.


The motivation and energy necessary for healing exist within the patient, rather than in the health care team. The three aspects of nursing should not be viewed as functioning independently but as interrelated. The three aspects interact, and the circles representing them change size, depending on the patient’s total course of progress.


Hall’s model appears to be completely and simply logical. Her work may be viewed as the philosophy of nursing. The three Cs (care, core, and cure) in this theory were unique. In all the circles of the model, the nurse is present, although focus of the nurse’s role is on the care circle.


Hall’s model is considered to be plain and simple in its presentation. However, the receptiveness and resilience necessary for its utilization and function may not be so simple for nurses whose personality, educational preparation, and experience have not prepared them to function with minimal structure. This and the self-imposed age and illness requirements limit the generalizability. The age requirement for the application of her theory, which is 16 years of age and above limits the theory since it cannot be disregarded that nurses are faced with pediatric clients every now and then. The concept of a patient aggregate such as having families and communities as the focus of nursing practice was not tackled. It is purely on the individual himself, although, the role of the family or the community within the patient’s environment was modestly discussed.


Hall imposed an age requirement for the application of her theory which is 16 years of age and above. This limits the theory since it cannot be disregarded that nurses are faced with pediatric clients every now and then. Even though Hall confined her concepts for that age bracket, the concepts of care, core, and cure can still be applied to every age group but again, none was specified. The only tool of therapeutic communication Hall discussed is reflection. By inference, all other techniques of therapeutic communication are eliminated. Reflection is not always the most effective technique to be used.

The concept of a patient aggregate such as having families and communities, as the focus of nursing practice was not tackled. It is purely on the individual himself. Although, the role of the family or the community within the patient’s environment was modestly discussed. In the focus of nursing care in Hall’s concepts, the individual must pass an acute stage of illness for you to successfully apply her theory. Therefore, this theory relates only to those who are ill. This indicates that no nursing contact with healthy individuals, families, or communities, and it negates the concept of health maintenance and disease prevention.


Hall used her knowledge of psychiatry and nursing experiences in the Loeb Center as a framework for formulating the Care, Core, and Cure Theory. Her model contains three independent but interconnected circles. The three circles are the core, the care, and the cure.

The core is the patient, the cure refers to the medical and nursing interventions, and the care is the nurturing provided by nurses. Nursing functions in all three of the circles but shares them to different degrees with other disciplines.

Even though Hall confined her concepts for patients with the age of 16 years and above, the concepts of care, core and cure can still be applied to every age group but again, none was specified. This theory puts emphasis on the importance of the total patient rather than looking at one part or aspect. There is also emphasis put on all three aspects of the theory, the three Cs, functioning together. In addition, for a nurse to successfully apply Hall’s theory, the individual must pass an acute stage of illness. In this theory, no nursing contact with healthy individuals, families, or communities, contradicts the concept of health maintenance and disease prevention.





Alligood, M., & Tomey, A. (2010). Nursing theorists and their work, seventh edition. Maryland Heights: Mosby-Elsevier.


Published in Nursing
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