Items filtered by date: December 2021

Sunday, 05 December 2021 07:34

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution


The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

            The Vietnam War happened to be a thorn in the flesh for the United States of America President, Lyndon Baines Johnson, and that made the president to have to power to control the army without the approval of the Congress as empowered by the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. As a result, the government spent most of its resources on war and was unable to implement the Great Society Program. The Great Society Program was a strategy by the United States aimed at improving the quality of education and guarantying natural beauty and also ensured that income was distributed evenly among the American. However, although the Vietnam War was important to the American, it affected their lives negatively. This essay evaluates the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.

            The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave the United States of America power to control the military and this resolution was approved by the Congress. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was created after North Vietnam arm attacked the US destroyer. After these attacks, the resolution was passed by the Congress. To date, whether these attacks were factual or fiction still remains a debatable issue. This resolution empowered the president to declare war any time he found it necessary. Even though the attacks were controversial, Johnson employed the power bestowed to him by the congress to send the United States of America troops to Vietnam. About four hundred soldiers were sent to the war front.

            As Johnson sent the soldiers to Vietnam, power conflicts emerged between the president and the congress. The power conflict was created by the fact that before the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, it was the congress that had the sole power to declare war. After some struggles between the president and the congress, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution empowered the president to have the power to declare war any time he found it necessary. Another cause of power struggle was the amount of money that could be spent on war. The President, Johnson, also won, and made a decision to spend the whole amount on the Vietnam War. It is this decision on spending that resulted to abandonment of the Great Society Program.  It is Johnson who created the Great Society Program and ended up neglecting it. The Great Society program was aimed at improving the living standards of the Americans through equal distribution of wealth, improved education programs, and maintenance of the environment through preservation of natural beauty. However, the decision by Johnson to engage in the Vietnam War left limited or no resources for the program to be implemented.

            The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution adversely affected the lives of the Americans. As the war escalated, conflicts of interest between the congress and the president continued to be evident. The involvement of the United States of America troops in the Vietnam War left permanent scars on Johnson’s presidency. There are a number of reasons why Johnson along with the majority of Americans were scared by the Vietnam War. It is these fears that made the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to make a haste decision and the president made a decision to attack Northern Vietnam. While making the decision to attack Northern Vietnam, he had to forego the Great Society Program. The Great Society Program was a vision by Johnson for the American people. Through it poverty would be eradicated, there would be improved health care, and unemployment rates would decline. Nonetheless, both the Great Society Program and the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution had great effect on the American society (Dare, 2010).

Although Johnson was focused on protecting the United States of America citizens, he should have made some efforts to confirm the American destroyers had actually been attacked. More so, decision by the congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a big mistake. While passing the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, the congress was not clear whether the United States of America destroyers has actually been attacked. Mores, the Congress did not know whether the United States of America President had drafted the resolution three months prior to the destroyers being attacked. As a result, there was suspicion of foul play between the Congress and the presidency (Moise, 1996).

            As the American troops joined the Vietnam War, there were major conflicts between the US president and the government’ legislative branch. The chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Senator William Fulbright was against the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution because the president gained so much power. In his opposition to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, he organized a public congressional hearing to enable the citizens to  have first hand information about what was happening in Vietnam. Many cabinet members were asked to provide the information they knew about the war. The audience asked many questions in respect to the tactics, strategies, and expenses being employed in Vietnam. Most of the cabinet members refused to respond appropriately, while other claimed to have had very little information about the war. The failure by Johnson to implement the Great Society Program and the decision to engage the American troops in the Vietnam War made Johnson to leave the Whitehouse a discouraged and disappointed man. Many Americans do not find the justification of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.




Dare, L. (2010). CIA's Gulf of Tonkin secrets: A novel based on true events. New York ; Bloomington: iUniverse.

Moise, E. E. (1996). Tonkin Gulf and the escalation of the Vietnam War. Chapel Hill [u.a.: University of North Carolina Press.



Published in History
Sunday, 05 December 2021 07:33

The Women of Ravensbruck Concentration Camp

The Women of Ravensbruck Concentration Camp



Ravensbruck Concentration Camp was the largest camp for women during the German Reich. It was the largest camp for women after the Lichtenburg camp was closed in 1939. It was constructed by the German authorities starting in November 1938 near Ravensbruckvillage, at a site which is around 50 miles to the northern side of Berlin. It was constructed by around 500 male prisoners who were transported by the German authorities in November 1938 from the Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp for males. The male prisoners had to build a camp with 12 barracks, an infirmary, a kitchen, and a small concentration camp for male prisoners, which was completed isolated from the Ravensbrückcamp hosting women. The entire concentration camp surrounded by a very high wall, which had electrified barbed wires at the top. The decision to have the Ravensbrück camp built was the idea of Himmler. He chose this specific location because it was easy to reach and was considered out of the way. Ravensbrück, in which the concentration camp was built, was a small village, which had beautiful scenery with several lakes and forests. The village was not far from Furstenberg. Further, there was a good road connecting Ravensbrückand Fursternberg. In addition, the Furstenberg’s rail station directly linked Ravensbrückto Berlin (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).    

Who the Camp Hosted

After the completion of the camp, it first hosted 867 women prisoners (7 Austrian women prisoners and 860 German women prisoners on 18th May 1939) who the authorities transferred from another camp. These women were transferred in May 1939 from the Lichtenburg Concentration Camp located in Saxony since it had been closed. The numbers of prisoners increased greatly within a very short time. On 29th May 1939, 400 gypsy women prisoners from Austria arrived at the camp. This was followed by women prisoners from Poland on 28th September 1939. By the end of 1939, the women prisoners’ population in the concentration camp was 2,290. By the start of the year 1943, the camp had a female inmate population of over 10,000. This population grew to over 50,000 inmates by January 1945. However, by 1945, the camp had both male and female inmates even though most of the inmates were female prisoners indicating that the camp was no longer solely for women(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).

In order to cater for the increasing demand of women prisoners, the Ravensbrück camp was enlarged four times. Before the end of 1941, the camp had 12,000 female prisoners. In 1942, more women prisoners were transferred from Russia to the camp. Before the end of 1942, the prisoners’ population in the camp was at 15,000 and by the end of 1943, it had reached 42,000 female prisoners. Just as it was the case in other concentration camps, Ravensbrück had a crematory. The SS authorities decided to construct a gas chamber in the camp in November 1944. By this time, the female prisoners’ population had risen to 80,000(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).   

After the start of the war, the population in the camp was more international. Prisoners were soon coming from over 20 European countries. The inmates were from different countries mostly Poland with a representation of 36%, Soviet Union with 21%, German Reich with 18%, Hungary with 8%, France with 6%, Czechoslovakia at 3%, Yugoslavia and the Benelux countries at 2% each. The camp had different types of prisoners including Jews, political prisoners known as asocials such as Sinti and Roma, ‘work-shy’, criminals, race defilers, and Jehovah’s witnesses. The numbers of prisoners in each of these categories were varied (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).

The Camp Leadership

The camp leadership had five leadership departments namely the political department, the commandant’s office, camp doctor department, protective custody camp, and administration department. Tamaschke was the first commandant serving from 1938 December to 31st April 1939. His leadership was followed Koegel who started his leadership tenure on 1st January 1940. He was succeeded by Fritz Suhren who served as the camp commandant starting on 20th August 1942 to April 1945(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).

All the SS administratorsin the camp were male but with female guards who did not belong to the SS group but rather belonged to a group known as ‘the female civilian employees of the SS’. The camp was also used as a training site for female guards starting the beginning of 1942. Additionally, the camp had 18 barracks with different functions for each of the barracks. Two of the 18 barracks served as the prisoner’s sickbay, two more as warehouses, one as a penal block, and another one as the camp prison until a different block to serve as the prison was built in 1939. The remaining twelve of the eighteen barracks was the prisoners’ housing with prisoners sleeping in three-tiered bunks, which were wooden(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).

The Prisoner’s Experiences in the Camp

Life at Ravensbrück concentration camp was difficult and shameful just like in other concentration camps. Awful activities such as death by starvation, shooting, beating, and torture were on daily basis. Initially, the barracks that served as prisoners’ housing were in good condition with a washroom and toilets for each of the barracks. However, these conditions deteriorated to a large extent starting the year 1943. At the start, the provided rations of foods to the prisons were in small quantities and these quantities were decreased further by 1942. By the start of 1945, the camp was overcrowded and this led to poor sanitary conditions resulting to typhus epidemic spreading throughout the camp. The infected and ill prisoners were not taken care of. In fact, the weak and sick prisoners were subjected to selection and the selected prisoners were isolated and killed. The selected prisoners were initially shot to death. This changed in 1942 in which the SS officers transferred the weak and injured prisoners to the Bernberg sanitarium, a place that was fitted with gas chambers initially meant for killing the people diagnosed with intellectual and physical disabilities in the process referred to as euthanasiaduring the Nazi regime. An approximated 1600 female and 300 male prisoners were sent to the Bernberg sanitarium to face their deaths in 1942. Around 50% of these prisoners sent to death were Jewish, while 25% were Sinti/ Roma, and 13% belonged to the Jehovah’s Witnesses group (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2015).

A second round of killing was initiated by the Camp authorities in the later part of 1942 and went on until 1944. During this period, over 60 trucks left the camp for euthanasia killing in Hartheim center, which is located near Linz in Austria. Each of this truck had 1,000 prisoners implying that a total of 60,000 prisoners were killed during this phase. Prisoners in the camp were also murdered by the SS staff through transfer to the Auschwitz-Birkenau killing center or through lethal injection. In 1945, the killing method and transfer to killing centers changed after the SS built a gas chamber near the camp’s crematorium. In this crematorium, around 6,000 prisoners were gassed by the Germans before the camp was freed by Soviet troops in April 1945(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).

The selection of the weak and ill women to be transported to Mittweida for death was done after every two or three weeks by the SS commandant (Suhren) and the SS doctors (Pflaumand Schwarzhuber). The selection process was a very surprising process. The women had to run in front of the guards and the doctors with their skirts lifted over their hips so that any women with scars, swollen feet, injuries, or found too weak and ill to run fit in the selected group. The selected women were argued to be taken to a ‘recovery period’ that involved jailing in sealed barracks without food and medical care until death saved them. Most of the women in the selected groups did not arrive at Uckermark Youth Camp because they were gassed on the way in special vans that served as mobile gas chambers. The engine’s exhaust pipe was directly linked to the freight compartment of the van with gassing done for 15-20 minutes(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).

Life for the children was very hard. So many children were confined in the camp. However, the sadism and cruelty against them did not have limits and their fate was awful. In fact, most children were sentenced to their deaths before they were born. The newborn babies were separated from their mothers immediately after birth and thrown into a sealed room or drowned to death. The murdering of these innocent souls was mostly done in the presence of their mothers. There are evidences provided that most children were thrown to the crematory alive, were buried alive, or were drowned, strangled, or poisoned in Ravensbrück. Other children suffered as research subjects with young girls at the age of eight sterilized as a result of direct exposure to X-rays on their genitals. In the initial days, children were killed immediately after birth. However, this changed when Rosenthal, the SS doctor, together with his fiancée, GerdaQuernheim, forced women to abort their pregnancies through bestial methods. Later, the children were allowed to survive but died soon after as a result of very poor sanitary conditions and lack of food (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014). 

The prisoners in the camp were also subjected to unethical medical experiments by the SS medical doctors at around August 1942. This included experimenting the use of a number of chemical substances including sulfanilamide in treatment of wounds to prevent infections. The SS doctors also experimented various transplanting methods such as amputations experiments. In these experiments, around 80 women (generally Polish) were selected by the SS doctors for the experiments and many of them died in the process. The survivors were left with permanent physical damages. In order to develop an efficient sterilization method, the SS doctors conducted sterilization experiments on both women and children mostly from Roma (Gypsies)(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).

The SS opened brothels in 1942 in most of the concentration camps. The camp authorities wanted to reward make prisoners who exceeded the production quotas to be rewarded by female prisoners who were working on the brothels. Most of the women who suffered this fate of working in the brothels were from RavensbrückCamp with around 100 women selected. Most of the women working in the brothels were forced to do so. However, other few numbers volunteered after the SS authorities promised them that they would receive special treatment and might be released from the camp after a span of six months. None of these promises were made and no releases were made. In short, life for the prisoners in the concentration camps and especially at Ravensbrückcamp was terribly unbearable(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).

It is notable that over 132,000 prisoners, both women and children were confined in the concentration camp. However, around 92,000 of these prisoners died out of starvation, weakness for hard labor, and executions. Towards the end of the war and as a result of rapid advance of the Russian Army, the SS authorities had a decision to eliminate as many prisoners as it was possible. This was to avoid provision of testimonies by the surviving prisoners regarding the happenings in the camp. In order to achieve their goal of killing as many prisoners as possible, 130 pregnant women and children were killed through gassing in March 1945. Before April 1945, the SS authorities transferred the camp machines and archives to a safer place. All this was meant to destroy evidence. On 27th and 28th April 1945, all women who could walk were ordered vacate the camp in a death march. By this time, around 300 men and 3,000 ill and exhausted women prisoners could not leave the camp(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).   


The SS authorities forced prisoners from the Ravensbrückcamp to unpaid and hard labor mostly in local industries and agricultural projects. By 1944, most of the German producers relied on free and forced labor from the camp prisoners in the production of armaments. In order to conduct their practices effectively, Ravensbrückcamp was made the administrative center for more than 40 sub-camps with more than 70,000 prisoners, mostly women prisoners. The sub-camps were constructed next to the factories that produced armaments, near the famous place known as Greater German Reich, which is located in the south of Austria and north of Baltic Sea. Some of the sub-camps were also used in provision of prisoner labor required in construction projects as well as labor required to clear city rubbles from Allied air attacks. The SS authorities also established a number of factories dealing with production of electrical components and textiles near Ravensbrück where they could get free labor. The largest of these sub-camps required for provision of free and forced labor held more than 1,000 prisoners each. Some of these sub-camps are Rechlin/ Retzow, Neustadt-Glewe, Malchow, Altenburg, Gruneberg, Magdeburg, Neubrandenburg, Leipzig-Schonefeld, Karlshagen I, and Barth(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2014).


American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. (2015). Ravensbrück Concentration Camp: History and overview. Retrieved from

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.(2014). Ravensbrück.Retrieved from


Published in History
Sunday, 05 December 2021 07:31

Managing in the Global Environment


Managing in the Global Environment


Kiss New York is a company that sells cosmetics in the United States and is wishing to expand operations by opening a manufacturing facility in Hong Kong. The term paper is an environmental analysis of Hong Kong that will guide Kiss New York on its decision to invest in the country.


Hong Kong is one of the top financial centers in the world with a capitalistic economy that features low taxes and free trade. The GDP of Hong Kong has grown significantly over the years. Between 1961 and 1997, the GDP grew 180 fold. 90% of the country’s GDP is generated by the service sector while industry accounts for 9%. In terms of PPP, Hong Kong’s GDP per capita ranked sixth in the world in the year 2011. In the year 2009, the GDP was US$210.7 billion. In the year 2015, the GDP (PPP) was $381.9 billion with a growth rate of 2.9%. Labor freedom has a regulatory efficiency of 95.9. Labor force in the year 2010 was about 3.7 million (The Heritage Foundation, 2015).Exports for the year 2014 were estimated at $528.2 billion. Major partners were China, UK, USA and the EU. Imports were estimated at $560.2 billion and major partners were China, EU, Japan and Singapore. Unemployment is at an impressive below 5%. Major industries include clothing, tourism, textile and electronics. Transport and communication in Hong Kong are highly developed (Wan, 2004).


Most of Hong Kong land is hilly and mountainous. Agriculture is not very common in the country due to high level of urbanization. However, the country has been on the front line in promoting green environment. The current environment issues include emission of gasses that lead to Ozone layer degradation. Industrialization has been the major cause of these emissions. Extinction of some natural resources is also an environmental issue (Carroll, 2007).Natural resources of the country can be categorized into three; quarried rock, metalliferous and non-metalliferous minerals as well as offshore sand deposits. There is a high occurrence of mineral resources in Hong Kong despite the fact that it is small in size. About 2.95% of Hong Kong is arable while permanent crops cover 0.95%. Landslides occur very often in Hong Kong and this happens to be one of the natural hazards in addition to tropical cyclones, which are very frequent in the summer months.

Political-Legal environment

Hong Kong has an independent government that is established under the principle of “one country, two systems”. Chief Executive heads the government and operates independently from the judiciary. There is a high level of political stability in Hong Kong. FDI is also well developed with many foreign nations already established. For approval, foreign organizations have to meet the minimum legal requirements that differ based on the type of industry. Labor and employment laws are well established and they are favorable to both local and foreign employees. Hong Kong also has vivid tax laws with clauses for both local and foreign organizations (Chiu &Lun, 2011).


Kiss New York has a good opportunity to prosper in Hong Kong due to the good economy and availability of labor. As a result of the good GDP, people have a high purchasing power and hence can afford cosmetics. Consequently, Kiss New York will not struggle for customers. There is availability of natural resources as well. The legal environment is also favorable for Kiss New York as there are no many barriers.


Carroll, J. M. (2007). A concise history of Hong Kong. Lanham, Md. [u.a.: Rowman & Littlefield.

Chiu, Stephen W.K., &Lun, Wong Siu. (2011). Repositioning the Hong Kong Government: Social Foundations and Political Challenges. Hong Kong Univ Pr.

The Heritage Foundation (2015), Hong Kong. 2015 Index of Economic Freedom. From

Wan, H. Y. (2004). Economic development in a globalized environment: East Asian evidences. Norwell, Mass: Kluwer Academic Publisher.



Published in Management
Sunday, 05 December 2021 07:30

Effects of Advanced Math Curriculum


Effects of Advanced Math Curriculum


The advanced curriculum was designed through the Mentoring Mathematical Minds (M3) project. The main goal of this project was to enhance the understanding of complicated mathematical concepts among students who showed interest in mathematics irrespective of their backgrounds. An exam was offered for the units covered in the project and the results compiled in order to show the level and rate of understanding of the students. It was also concerned with determining the gains of the students in exerting confidence and control on the various tasks they carry out as learnt in the advanced curriculum. In this curriculum, communication between the learner and the teacher plays a vital role to the level of understanding the concepts taught (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2007).

The socio-cultural theory recognizes a connection between the instructor and the student (Forman, 2003). The learners are actively engaged in the learning process. Each of the learners has a role to play during the discussions conducted and guided by the teacher, (NCTM, 1991). The socio-cultural theory was instrumental in the curriculum design framework hence a guide towards the development of the M3 project units. The advanced curriculum has greatly changed learner’s perception on math whereby the students enjoy the lessons and are well equipped to apply the knowledge acquired in solving emerging issues compared to other students doing a normal curriculum. The teacher on the other hand plays a role of creating an environment whereby all learners are motivated and free to interact and critically think in order to quantify their ideas(Pelletier & Shore, 2003).

In order to ensure effectiveness in research on the advanced curriculum, various methods were used in its evaluation to determine how the students benefited. An analysis was done on the content offered in the project M3units. Several schools and teachers were selected to take part in the research whereby schools from urban and suburban areas of Connecticut and Kentucky were involved for 4 years with teachers agreeing to participate for 2 years in each grade level (3-5). In addition, a larger group of students was identified to take part in the research. The students were chosen taking into consideration their high potential in mathematics. According to NCTM, students were referred to as“mathematically promising” due to their wide range of capabilities and requirements, which have to be taken care of, (Sheffield, 1999). A comprehensive process was followed in order to select the students and place them in groups according to their abilities. For instance, some of the methods included the use of the Mathematics scale for rating the behavioral characteristics of the high potential students, performance from the tests given, as well as teachers providing a report concerning the students.

It was further observed that providing a test would give a good platform of identifying only the best learners for the research considering the large diversity in terms of their culture and language backgrounds since portraits were used (Otis& Lennon, 1997). Another method was the involvement of the instructors in assessment and evaluation process. They were required to provide a report about the performance of the learners in various areas.The results were brought forth by compiling data collected at student level as per each group in the classroom.Information from each grade was analyzed to determine the classroom level outcomes from the curriculum. It was realized from the outcomes that the results a lot similarity at each grade level with less variations.




Forman, E. A. (2003). A sociocultural approach to mathematics reform. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.(1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics.Reston, VA.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2007). Curriculum research brief: Selecting the right curriculum. Reston, VA.

Otis, A.S., & Lennon, R.T. (1997).Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (7th Ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace Education Measurement.

Pelletier, S., & Shore, B. M. (2003).The gifted learn, the novice, and the expert: Sharpening emerging views of giftedness. New York: Hampton press.

Sheffield, L. J. (1999). Developing mathematically promising students. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Published in Mathematics


Healthy People 2020: Influenza in New York City

            Influenza is commonly referred to as flu and an infectious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus. Among the common characteristics of the disease include sore throat, running nose, high fever, and headache among others. There three categories of influenza and are spread through coughing and sneezing. The best method to stop the spread of the disease is through hand washing. In New York City (NYC), influenza is common seasonal lung infection that is common during the fall and winter. Every year, influenza accounts for about 2,000 fatalities among the residents of NYC. That statistics indicates that influenza is a dangerous disease that is mainly controlled through vaccination. This essay evaluates the epidemiological and surveillance data of influenza in NYC while taking into consideration the healthy people 2020 initiative by the government.

            It is important to begin by considering the surveillance data of influenza in New York City. According to the NYC Influenza Information report (2015), between September 2014 and August 2015, the highest cases of influenza were  reported between in weeks around December 29, 2014 and January 28, 2015, where almost 500 cases of influenza were reported.  The lowest cases of influenza or influenza related illness were reported on April 28, 2015, where there were less than 100 cases. The results are further produced in regards clinic visits of three population that encompass children aged between 0 and 4 years, 05 and 17 years, and 18 and 64 years. The information revealed that the youngest population, i.e., those aged 0-5 months had reported the highest number of clinic visit to be diagnosed for influenza related illness. That was followed by those aged between 5 and 17 years and the least group that reported least number of clinic. Among youngest population, they were most vulnerable in weeks December 29, 2014. Those aged between 5 and 17 years reported most hospital visits in week around January 18, 2015. However, among the oldest group, their visits to the hospital were evenly distributed between the period running from September 30, 2014 to August 25, 2015. Thus, it is in the highest period of infection when most cases of infection were reported.

            Based on the information gotten from the NYC Influenza Information report, it is apparent that Healthy People 2020 need to employ its policies to address the problem of influenza. This is based on the fact that infants, whose immunity is yet to develop are most vulnerable. Since influenza is an immunization and infectious disease, the objective of Healthy People 2020 is increase the prevalence of immunization rates. This will be coupled with laying strategies to cut the rate of infectious diseases that can be prevented. This is after the healthcare policy makers realized that during the 20th century life expectancy can only be increased through enhancing the lives of the infants. Thus, through increment of child survival rates through immunization and reduction of mortality rates, then life expectancy can increase. More so, management of infectious diseases such as influenza is the only way to manage pronounced cases of disability, illness, and death. Besides Influenza, Healthy People 2020 recommends that immunization is the only way to address 16 others diseases that can be prevented through immunization (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2015).

            In efforts to achieve the objective of Healthy People 2020, evidence based approaches will be employed during the immunization process. The process works closely with the community activities along with services meant to treat and prevent the infectious diseases. The objectives Healthy People 2020 aims at use of technological advancement that will guarantee strong partnership between non-governmental organizations, local healthcare providers, states, and counties in efforts to ensure that the infectious diseases are controlled and their spread limited. Thus, the Healthy People 2020 will ensure that spread of some infectious diseases does not remain an issue within some geographical regions through creation of a more mobile community. People will be made aware about the prevalence of the disease and the best approach to reduce infections, enhance treatment of the infection, and prevent future infections.

            Healthy People 2020 consider immunization against the infectious diseases a noble thing because the citizens of the United States of America continue to get diseases that can be prevented through immunization. Among the preventable diseases that can be prevented through immunization include tuberculosis, influenza, and viral hepatitis. These diseases continue to among leading causes of death and illness in US. In addition, a substantial amount of US budget is spent treating these diseases. Within the United States of America, local, and state level, there is a health infrastructure that carries out surveillance and the spread of infectious diseases. The infrastructure is critical in monitoring new, and re-emerging infectious diseases. Healthy People 2020 also notes other infectious disease through effective employment of vaccines, testing and screening, antibiotics, and scientific enhancement of treatment of infectious diseases related complications.

            The Healthy People 2020 further postulates that the best health indicators entails the clinical preventive procedures. The clinical preventive procedures entails scheduled immunization and screening against all the diseases, both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The procedures are in a position detect and prevent diseases and illness. Through detection during the early stages, the diseases or illness can be managed before they become incurable. Early treatment is critical in reducing the probability of disability, medical care costs, and untimely deaths. Although the services are covered by private insurance plans, Medicaid and medicare through the Affordable care Act, most of the United States of America citizens ignore the preventive measures. The preventive measures can help in early detection and management of some conditions before they worsen. For example, according to Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), although it is apparent the most effective criterion to prevent colorectal cancer is by beginning screening at the age of 50 years, only 25% of the citizens begin to be screened at that age (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2015).

            Through the leading health indicators, clinical procedures and services enable people to live better through saving life. More so, scientific based approaches can be employed in saving financial resources and enhance provision of good qualities of healthcare. Through that, people can be aided in prevention of unnecessary procedures and tests. The clinical preventive procedures and services can prevent death, disease, and disability.

            In conclusion, Health People 2020 is a great approach that is defined by the government to enhance the health of the citizens through use of different approaches. In regards to the people of New York City, the spread of communicable disease such as influenza can be controlled through the application of the Healthy People 2020 approach. This is because the Healthy People 2020 has well defined criterion to address different health issues. Through the Healthy People 2020, infectious diseases such as influenza will become history. The infants, who are most vulnerable will have an improved healthcare and will have a prolonged life. The government approach of this strategy is aimed at preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases. It is unfortunate that many people continue to die of preventable diseases yet there are strategies that have been established. People to need to employ the strategies put in place that includes screening and immunization in order to enhance better health. The better health is guaranteed by early detection of diseases or early prevention of communicable diseases.




Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Frequently Asked Questions About Colorectal Cancer. Atlanta, GA: 2011. from

NYC Influenza Information. (2015). Surveillance Data. Retrieved from

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2015). Health People 2020. Retrived from




Published in Health essays
Sunday, 05 December 2021 07:26

biography-Life of Bob Marley


Life of Bob Marley



Looking the biography of Bob Marley, one is convinced of the unparalleled influence of global culture upon his artistry. Even though he passed on in May 11 1981, his legend looms larger than expected. This is proved by his long list of accomplishments, which is attributed to his music that identified oppressors as well as agitating for social change. Through his music, the listeners are encouraged to forget their troubles and join in the dance. He was posthumously inaugurated into the ‘Rock and Roll Hall of Fame’ in the year 1994. In 1999 December, the album he produced in his 1977 Exodus album became the ‘Album of the Century by Time Magazine’ while his song by the name ‘One Love’ was named by BBC as the ‘Song of the Millennium’. According to SoundScan, the compilation of Marley’s Legend is the 17th album to sell over ten million copies (Toynbee, 2013).

            When alive, Marley’s music was not recognized with the due nomination. He was awarded ‘The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award’ in2001. This is an honor that is given to artists who make creative contributions through exceptional artistic significance to the recording field during their lifetimes. He was also nominated for a Grammy for ‘Best Long Form Music Video Documentary’ in 2001. Further as noted by Gooden (2003, p. 17), “In 2001 Bob Marley was accorded the 2171st star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame by the Hollywood Historic Trust and the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, in Hollywood, California. As a recipient of this distinction, Bob Marley joined musical legends including Carlos Santana, Stevie Wonder and The Temptations”. An eight block stretch in Brooklyn’s Church Avenue was renamed Bob Marley Boulevard in 2006. This evidences that even though Bob Marley is already dead, his music has a great significance as evidenced through the awarded honors to date.


Early Life and Career

Bob Marley’s birth name was Robert Nesta Marley. He was born on 6th February 1945 to Cedella Marley who was only 18 years old. He spent his early life in a rural community of Nine Miles and settled in the mountainous region of St. Ann. In his rural community, the residents are accustomed to their African ancestry customs of using the art of storytelling in sharing time-tested and past traditions that are mostly ignored in official historical records. The chores, proverbs, and fables linked to the rural life Bob lived greatly influenced his adult songwriting. His parents, Cedella and Norval married in 1945 with the marriage strongly disapproved by Captain Marley’s family. Nevertheless, the elder Marley met the financial needs to Bob and his mother. Bob saw his father the last time at the age of five. His father died at the age of 70 of heart attack when Bob was ten years old (Moskowitz, 2007).

Bob attended school at Stepney Primary and Junior High School. He was a friend to Neville Livingston (Bunny Wailer) from childhood at Nine Mile. The two started playing music while in the primary and high schools. In the late 1950s while in his teens, Bob left his rural community for Jamaica’s capital where he settled in Trench Town, in the western of Kingston. His new neighborhood was made up of low-income people who lived in government yards and squatter settlements. Bob had to learn to defend him from the rude boys in the community. His challenging street fighting skills gave Bob a respectful nickname, Tuff Gong. Even though Trench Town was full of poverty, unsavory activities, and despair, it was culturally rich, in which Bob was able to nurture his rich musical talents.In Trenchtown, Bob was sharing a house with Livingstone and thus had extensive musical explorations including R&B from the American radio stations.Through his songwriting skills, he provided a lifelong inspiration to the people living in Trench Town. This was through the songs he produced then including ‘No Woman No Cry’ in 1974, ‘Trench Town Rock’ in 1975, and ‘Trench Town’ that was produced later after his death in 1983 (Gooden, 2003).

Soon enough, Marley formed a vocal group with Junior Braithwaite, Bunny Wailer, and Beverley Kelso. The three were inspired by Joe Higgs and Roy Wilson. Marley and his team were not playing any instruments by the time they met vocal act Higgs and Wilson. Higgs helped them developed their vocal harmonies and also taught Bob how to play the guitar. The music industry in the island was beginning to establish its shape by the early 1960s. Through its development, the indigenous popular Jamaican music by the name of ska was born. As noted by Moskowitz (2007, p. 222), “A local interpretation of American soul and R&B, with an irresistible accent on the offbeat, ska exerted a widespread influence on poor Jamaican youth while offering a welcomed escape from their otherwise harsh realities. Within the burgeoning Jamaican music industry, the elusive lure of stardom was now a tangible goal for many ghetto youths”.Later, Bob met an aspiring singer, Desmond Dekker, at the age of 16 years.

He was aspired by Dekker’s music after he went to the top UK charts in 1969 with Israelites, a single. It is through Dekker that Bob learned of Jimmy Cliff, a young singer who was the future star of ‘The Harder They Come’, the immortal Jamaican film. At the age of 14, Cliff had several recordings of hit songs. Bob was introduced to produce Leslie Kong by Cliff in 1962 and thus managed to record his first singles, ‘Judge Not’, ‘One More Cup of Coffee’, and ‘Terror’. Since Bob’s singles did not connect with the public as it should, he only received $20 as payment. This was evidence of an exploitative practice that was widespread in Jamaica for infancy music business. Bob did not give up and promised Kong that hewould one time make money in the future even if he would not be able to enjoy it (Toynbee, 2013).

Bob’s career in music was grown after he met with the Wailers. In the year 1963, Marley, Wailer, Kelso, Smith, Braithwaite, and Tosh were known as The Teenagers. Their name was changed to The Wailing Rudeboys, to The Wailing Wailers in which they were recognized by Coxsone Dodd, a record producer, and later changed the name to The Wailers. Their first single as a team, Simmer Down, under the production of Coxsone became the Jamaican #1 in 1964 selling over 70,000 copies. Since they were working for Studio One, The Wailers found themselves in collaboration with well-known Jamaican musicians including Ernest Ranglin, Jackie Mitto the keyboardist, and Roland Alphonso the saxophonist. Smith, Braithwaite, and Kelso left The Wailers in 1966 leaving it with a trio of Tosh, Wailer, and Bob (Toynbee, 2013).

Personal Life

            Even though he was born a Catholic, he changed to Rastafari Movement, whose culture helped greatly in reggae development. He took the Rastafari music from the socially deprives Jamaican areas to international musical arenas. He married Alparita Constantia Rita Anderson in February 10th 1966 and had several children including three children born of his wife, two from Rita’s earlier relationships, and others with other women. It is notable that Rita was also a part of Bob’s singing team. The acknowledged children are eleven. Apart from music, Bob was a football player, he played it in parking lots, inside recording insides, and on the fields. Bob got ill in July 1977 when he was diagnosed with malignant melanoma under a toe’s nail, which was a sign of an existing cancer. Even though he was advised by his doctors to have the toe amputated, he refused on religious grounds and thus had the nail and the nail bed detached ad a skin graft from the thigh done to cover the toe area. In spite of his illness, he continued with his touring. He did several shown in 1980 before appearing at the Stanley Theater in September 1980, which was his last concert. His following tours and concerts were cancelled as his health deteriorated from cancer spread. He sought treatment at the Bavarian clinic but fought the cancer without success. He eventually flew to Jamaica but on his way, his main functions worsened and he was thus taken to hospital in Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Miami where he died in May 11th 1981at the age of 36 (Moskowitz, 2007).



Gooden, L. (2003). Reggae heritage: Jamaica’s music history, culture & politic. London: AuthorHouse.

Moskowitz, D. V. (2007). Bob Marley: A biography.London: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Toynbee, J. (2013). Bob Marley: Herald of a postcolonial world.New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Published in biography

Lesson Plans with 6-E Learning Cycle





Topic: What is biological diversity?

Grade: 4-6

Duration: 45 minutes

Purpose: different food species from the food web are presented in drawings on the table. Taking any of the pictures from the table shows that the specific food species drawn on it has been extinct. This is to help learn hos extinction of a specific species would impact others on the food web.

Learning Objectives: at the end of the practical lesson, students will be in a position to:

  • Explain how animals and plants support one another in the food web
  • Understand how human actions are a major threat to biodiversity
  • Explain how disappearance of one species impacts the others

Skills: skills will be developed in organizing the food web charts

Materials: pictures of food species, blackboard, drawing tools, chalk, paper, and music

Used vocabulary: carnivore, species, biodiversity, omnivore, decomposer, microorganism, ecosytem, food web, and food chain


1st Part: this will involve understanding food webs and would take 25 minutes


  • The entire class would be involved in creating the KWL chart and filling in the W and K columns in order to help reflect on biodiversity. New vocabulary would be introduced.


  • The teacher explains the learning objectives by having the students learn them loudly, in turns and explaining the noted new vocabulary.



  • The entire class as a team would identify examples of food chains noting the microorganisms, animals, and plants. The teacher explains the relationships between the noted components
  • The teacher writes the five major food chain levels on the blackboard namely plants a primary producers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and decomposers. From each of the earlier suggested food chains, the teacher requests the students to classify the noted components as per the levels. In turns, the students should write each component in its level on the blackboard.
  • Have lines drawn to connect the noted components in each food chain. This exercise should prove that one species can be found in different food chains.
  • Students should note down and then share later the negative and positive effects of human on food webs

Elaboration or Extension

2nd Part: Playing a Game to Understand Loss of Biodiversity (20 minutes)

  • The teacher should give the game rules and explain them clearly.
  • Play the game
  • The teacher explains extinction of species and asks the children how they think it can be reduced or eliminated
  • The class then completes the L column on the KWL chart


The students would be assessed on how active they are in the game and discussion

Students would also be assessed on how swift they are in brainstorming ways of eliminating or reducing biodiversity loss




Chessin, D. A., & Moore, V. J. (2004). The 6-E learning model. Science and Children, 42(3), 47-49.

Llewellyn, D. (2013). Teaching high school science through inquiry and argumentation. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin.

Llewellyn, D. (2014). Inquire within: Implementing inquiry- and argument-based science standards in grades 3-8. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

Published in Biology
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