Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive

 

 

Jamie Oliver’s Organization Case Study Analysis

Task 1:

Recruitment, selection and retention:

Jamie Oliver’s organization has used strategic recruitment, selection and retention in its practices. this has ensured that the organization has maintained high value employees. The following is an analysis of the strategies that Jamie uses in the recruitment, selection and retention process, and an analysis of other strategies that Jamie should use in his organization.

 

Recruitment:

Ronald R. Sims (2010) defines recruitment as a process that involves generating a large number of individuals who are qualified for a job. (Ronald R. Sims, 2010, pp 160). Recruitment is also defined as the process of discovering potential candidates for a job. The recruitment process starts with a want, according to the case study it is evident that Jamie wanted young inexperienced and unskilled individuals just like him who would take up training and employment in various restaurants.

The recruitment process has two main goals, the first goal is to attract qualified applicants and the second goal is to encourage individuals who are unqualified to select themselves out. This seems to be a strategy the Jamie used; he only encouraged the young inexperienced and unskilled individuals to apply. The selection process also involved various stages to ensure that those who did were unqualified would quit.

Conventional methods require that human resource manager take up a decision to recruit, they decide how many employees are needed, when they are needed and decide on the special qualifications. Jamie seems to have followed this procedure, he named his organization fifteen given that, he needed 15 trainees, he also specified the special qualifications for the individuals he selected and this was the unskilled yet highly motivated individuals who would take up the challenge to undergo training and take up three tests.

There are various strategic recruitment processes that organization uses; these include full time or part time recruitment, seasonal employment and temporary workers. Jamie seems to e using the temporary worker strategy, which involves trying before he employs the applicants. This is evident where recruited applicants have to undergo various stages and tests before they can qualify.

Jamie recruitment process did not follow conventional methods, which are based on skills and knowledge; you recruited individuals who were inexperienced and unqualified. In my own view, I would not use Jamie’s method, as indicated in the case study, Jamie faced various challenges including disruptions and demotivating given that they were inexperienced. Jamie however did not give up and continued on to the selection process, which involved various stages to select applicants.

Selection

The selection process is defined as a process that involves making a decision on whether to hire or not to hire; it is also defined as the process in which an organization chooses a qualified individual to fill up a position. The selection process follows various criteria, which include formal education, experience, past performance, physical characteristics and personal characteristics.

Selection involves testing recruited individuals, Jamie selected 60 applicants in his first process, and he also applied three tests, which involves determining whether the individuals were well equipped to fill up this position.

There are various tests that are applied in the selection process; these tests include personality tests, cognitive ability test, work ability testing and physical ability test. In the first stage, Jamie seems to apply the personality tests, these tests are applied to determine emotional and behavior pattern and thought. Jamie applied this test, which is aimed at determining whether an individual is enthusiastic and passionate about food. This test is recorded enabling him to make proper decisions about the individual.

The second test involves a work ability testing, these test are applied to determine an element of a position. The applicant’s ability on the job is determined through this test, which is applied by Jamie. This test involves determining whether applicants are able to express themselves through their sensory experiences. This test involves recruits being given food they had never eaten before and asked to express themselves about the food. Through this selection stage, Jamie was able to reduce his recruits y half and only 30 remained.

The third stage-involves recruits being taught to cook a certain dish, all the stages were explained to them and they were asked to do it themselves. This is a cognitive ability test stragegy, which was aimed at determining whether the individuals were capable of solving problems and learning from experience. It is also in some was a work ability test.

In such a position, I would have applied other tests, which a crucial to successful selection process, these test would have included integrity tests, which determines whether an individual would engage in illegal activities, this is evident from the case study where applicants failed to attend classes while others were involved in violent behavior. Drug testing would also be appropriate in this case and finally medical tests which would determine the health of an individual given that they will handling food in a restaurant.

Retention:

Jamie uses unique retention strategies in his organization, he uses the development and career opportunity strategy, this motivates the young selected applicants for their chance to advance in their career as chefs, and he provides them with the necessary skills and knowledge and finds them jobs in high-ranking restaurants. This is how he maintains his selected applicants at his disposal. (Suzanne Dibble, 2013, pp 123). I would also use such a retention strategy combining them with other strategies such as financial strategies such as bonuses that help in retaining employees in the organization.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Task 2:

Leadership, motivation and management strategies:

Leadership style and strategies:

Edwin Locke (2013) states that leadership is distinguish from management in that a leader has a vision, purpose, mission and goal. On the other hand, management only involves implementing the vision.  (Edwin Locke, 2013, pp 3). From the case study, Jamie has a vision, mission and goal. His vision was to motivate young individuals to become chefs although they were unqualified and without skills. Jamie also implemented his vision by expanding his organization; this means that Jamie is both a good leader and a manager.

Leadership according to Sadler P. (2012) is an act of influencing tasks in order to achieve certain set goals. He states that leadership can be broken down to four main parts namely; leadership as an influencing process, leadership as a process involving interaction between followers and the leader, leadership is influenced by the situation where leadership takes place and that leadership has an outcome in achieving a set goal.

The case study indicates that Jamie influences his recruits by motivating them and encouraging them to learn and become skilled chefs. He also interacts with them and his leadership has a goal, which has been achieved over the years. More importantly, his leadership style is influenced by the situation and that is at hand.

There are various leadership styles and there is evidence to show that Jamie’s leadership style is influenced by these situations. Kippenberger (2011) states that a transformation leader is a leader who is charismatic and influences his followers in achieving a goal, from the case study, Jamie is a charismatic leader who influences recruits to become chefs and achieve their career goals. Jamie also uses transactional leadership style, Kippenberger (2011) also states that a transactional leader use rewards to punish or deter behavior; it is evident that Jamie applies punishment by suspending recruits who do not follow rules and exhibit deviant behavior.

Jamie can also be considered an autocratic leader, he sets the rules and gives orders on what should be done and how it should be done, his recruits are expected to follow his directions or else be punished. this is evident where Jamie does not in any way consult with his recruits when making decision, he also expects them to pass the tests that he gives them or else be opted out of the selection process. Bonnici (2014)

Jamie did not know his trainees, he had to be more autocratic, as discussed above, an autocratic leader sets the rules and gives orders on what to be done. Jamie’s autocratic leadership style is evident where he decides on what test to apply and who gets to join the team. After knowing his trainees, he is more relaxed and puts greater autonomy to trainees, in this situation, he applies situational leadership style whereby trainees are allowed to make their own decision and run activities on their own.

In order to manage the trainees more effectively, Jamie should also apply the bureaucratic leadership style, this style entails coming up with policies and procedures that will e used in decision making. Trainees would then be guided by these procedures and policies. When the trainees find themselves in situations that are not covered by the policies and procedure, then this leadership style proposes that they should consult with the leader above; in this case, they will consult Jamie. This leadership is more appropriate in actions that require routine; therefore, this leadership style will fit well in Jamie’s case.

 

Task 3:

Teamwork theory:

Tuckman’s teamwork theory provides an explanation on how Jamie was able to achieve teamwork in his organization. Tuckman’s theory states that teamwork evolves through four stages, the first stage is forming, the second storming, the third is norming and the third is performing. The team that Jamie built passed all these stages, which are evident in the case study. (Michael West,  2012 )

The forming stage is evident in the case study where Jamie selects a team of 15 candidates to train, it is evident that team members avoided conflicts and there was minimal confrontation or conflict. The second stage, which is storming, is evident from the case study where team members disagree and offer different opinions, it is evident that there was a conflict that merged among the team’s members and this can be viewed as the second stage of teamwork building. (Michael West,  2012 )

The third stage is norming, which is characterized by assignment of roles, this occurs when storming completes and the group is ready to work together and perform their roles. This is evident from the case study where conflicts end and the candidates are ready to perform their duties. The final stage, which is performing, is evident in the case study where Jamie succeeds in training his candidates and they can now work together as a team. (Michael West,  2012 )

 

Belbin's team role identifies how Jamie could use this model with his trainees to improve team work. According to this model, indivudals can be classified into 3 borad categories which include action oriented roles, people orietnetd roles and thought oriented roles.
Action oriented roles includes the shapers, these are individuals who other to improve, these individuals stimulate other to change and solve problems. A weakness of these individuals is that they may be argumentative and therefore may offend others. The other role is the completer; these are individuals who ensure that tasks are completed thoroughly. The weakness in these individuals is that they may unnecessary worry about the completion of tasks. The other role is the implementers; who get tasks done. The weakness with these individuals is that they might resist change because they are inflexible.

People oriented roles include the coordinator and these are individuals who guide the team members, their weakness is that they might be manipulative. The other role is the team worker, these are individuals who get work done by ensuring that all team members are working effectively, and their weakness is that they might be indecisive. The other is the resource investigator, these are curious and investigative indivudals, they explore the available options and their weakness is that they may lose enthusiasm quickly.

Thought oriented roles include the plant role, which are individuals who are creative and innovative, their weakness they are poor communicators. The other role is the monitor or evaluator, these are individuals who are thinkers and offer strategic approaches to tasks, their weakness are that they do not motivate others. The other role is the specialist, these are individuals who have specialized knowledge and their weakness is that they may limit their contribution to the team.

Jamie should use this model by investigating each trainee and determining the roles that they best fit in the team, in this way he can determine which role is missing from the team. After determining which role is missing, he can then select a team member to assume that role or bring in a new team member to fit the role. By assessing the various weaknesses of each team member, Jamie will also initiate actions that would improve the performance of these team members.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Task 4:

Performance evaluation:

Herman (2010) defined performance evaluation as the continuous process that involves identifying, measuring and evaluating the performance of employees and then aligning them to the organization goals. There is evidence from the case study that Jamie indentifies and measures the performance of his trainees, from the case study these form of evaluation starts during the recruitment and selection process where the trainees are given three tests which determines their performance. There is also evidence that the selected trainees are tested regularly and have an option of taking tests when they fail. (Herman, 2010)

Performance evaluation is important in that it ensures that employees are properly utilized in an organization, its main purpose is to measure performance against the expected performance, it also helps identify training needs and professional development, and it helps in identifying the skills and abilities of employees for the purpose of promotion and reward. Jamie will benefit from performance evaluation in that it ensures control of work being done, enhances the motivation and productivity of employees. Performance evaluation also helps employees to identify the objectives and goals of the organization, through performance evaluation, employees’ needs to be recognized are met whereby high performing individuals are rewarded, it also helps in identifying areas of improvement in the work process and also areas that require employee skills and knowledge development. (Herman, 2010)

 

The expectancy theory helps in analyzing the evaluation process evident in the case study, this theory states that individuals adjust behavior based on anticipated satisfaction. It is evident that the trainees adjust their performance due to the anticipated employment opportunity they will get when they successfully complete their training. Jamie will benefit from evaluation based on this theory, it is evident that through evaluation and rewarding performance will motivate his trainees to meet objectives and therefore improve the organization efficiency. (Herman, 2010)

The goal setting states that when organization goals are set, they play an important role in motivating employees to perform better. The case study indicates that Jamie set goals that would ensure that his trainees achieve the desired outcome; He sets goals that ensure that the unskilled and inexperienced recruits will end up being some of the best chefs in London. This is an indication that Jamie has been successful in setting achievable goals, motivating his recruits and achieving objectives.  (Herman, 2010)

Jamie should also come up with new way to monitor his trainees such as walking around them as they work, providing regular supervision every week , observing each trainee performance on a regular basis, organizing group meetings aimed at collecting their views and briefing them. Jamie will benefit from performance evaluation in that it ensures control of work, enhances the motivation and productivity,  helps employees to identify the objectives and goals, employees’ needs to be recognized are met , it helps identify process improvement areas and employee skills needs. (Herman, 2010)

 

 

 

 

Reference:

Aguinis Herman (2010). Performance Management. New Jersey: ABC books

Charles Hill  (2007). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. New York: Wiley and sons publishing

Charles A. Bonnici (2014). Creating a Successful Leadership Style: Principles of Personal Strategic. Oxford: Oxford university press.

David M. Bridgeland ( 2008). Business Modeling: A Practical Guide to Realizing Business. New York: Black well publishing

Edwin Locke (2013). The Essence of Leadership: The Four Keys to Leading Successfully. Oxford: Lexington books

Michael A. West( 2012). Effective Teamwork: Practical Lessons from Organizational. Boston: Boston university press.

Philip Sadler (2012). Leadership. Sterling: Kogan page publishing. Boston: Boston university press.

Ronald Sims (2010). Reforming Human Resource Management Agency. New Jersey: McGraw Hill.

Suzanne Dibble (2013). Keeping Your Valuable Employees: Retention Strategies for Your Organization. New York: Prentice hall

Tony Kippenberger (2011). Leadership Styles. New York: Wiley and sons publishing

Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive

Case Study :control component that is missing is risk assessment and monitoring

 

 

Situation a

The internal control component that is missing is risk assessment and monitoring. In this case, the internal control weakness revolves around the management in respect to designation of duties. After authorizing the purchases, there should be another officer who evaluates the delivery of the diamonds, and then an invoice should be issued to the supplier. The accounting officer is one who should be responsible for the payment and not the purchasing agent. Allowing the purchasing agent to authorize the payment increases the chances of fraud. In addition, the signing the checks and approving payment is a sensitive issue that should be monitored closely by the management (Arwinge, 2013). This is based on the fact that financial matters are the heart of the organization and any misappropriation of funds can be very expensive to Yankee Manufacturing.

            In the case, there is no supervisor who plays the role of monitoring the activities of the purchasing agent. Thus, it is the agent who fill all the data regarding the purchasing of the diamonds. It is important to note that, when there is no one to monitor the activities of the agent, the agent can end up defrauding the firm. Monitoring is very important component of the organization that ensure that only correct and verifiable information is recorded in the books of account. The solution to this problem is to delegate the supervisor a role to enhance accountability and monitoring of the activities of the purchasing agent.

Situation b.

The internal control element which is missing is control. this is because in the office, there are no control measures that define the chain of command when Rachel Williams is not in the office. As a result, when she is not around, those who are left behind have conflicts of interest. This is reflected by the two senior architects who take control of the office. Thus, they end up neglecting their duties, whereas only one employee can effectively manage the office. Lack of control of the office environment by Rachel results to the situation that can result to failure of the architectural firm (Harrer, 2008).

Another internal control element missing in Rachel’s office is lack of effective communication and information. In a categorical way, Rachel should be in a position to communicate effectively the chain of command and give instructions that should be followed to the letter. In the case, communication is a problem in the office, as a result, the two senior officers cannot communicate with one another and agree on who should take the management role of the office in the absence of Rachel. The solution to this problem is for Rachel to communicate effectively the chain of command so that, in her absentia, there is only one person who controls the office.

Situation c.

In this case the missing component of internal control is control of activities. This is because there is only one person who performs all the responsibilities. In City of Southport, there are many activities that require other employees to be employed and to perform different tasks. Giving all responsibilities to one person can have some adverse consequences on the individual (Needles Powers & Crosson, 2010). Thus, it is imperative that the city to employ other employees. For instance, checks for amount exceeding $5,000 require more than one signatory. The solution to this problem is to have more employees performing different tasks.

 

 

References

Arwinge, O. (2013). Internal control: A study of concept and themes. Heidelberg ; New York : Physica-Verlag.

Harrer, J. (2008). Internal control strategies: A mid to small business guide. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Needles, B. E., Powers, M., & Crosson, S. V. (2010). Financial and managerial accounting. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Top of Form

 

 

Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive

 

Case study analysis 

Part 1: Group Development

There are five major stages in group development namely forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. In this case, the group has already undergone the forming stage in which the group members have been identified and come together as a team. During this stage, there is a lot of uncertainty and anxiety with cautious members. As a result, personal opinions, conflict, and controversy are avoided. The group is currently in the second stage, the storming stage in which competition and conflict are high. The group members understand why they have formed the team and are thus confident in addressing the key issues for the group. This is the reason each member of the group airs his views on what should be done and who should be considered to have the greatest opinion. The third stage is the norming stage in which the group is a cohesive unit and each member respects the talents and skills presented by others. The performing stage involves high productivity as group members are supportive, unified, and loyal. The adjourning is the collapse of the group after completion of the tasks. Understanding the stages of group development will assist The Woodson Foundation in building a cohesive coalition since it would be clear on what to expect in each stage. Understanding that the group is currently in the storming stage for instance will help the group respect the cropping up conflict and competition.

                                                 Part II: Problem Identification

The major problems faced by Woodson Foundation are poor student grades, high crime rates, high burn out of staff, and high turnover rates. The secondary problem is that even though the school understands the major primary issues experienced, it does not have a good way of addressing them. While active participation of all school stakeholders is encouraged, it is argued that some stakeholders have more power and say than others. This is an indication that some of the stakeholders who will be involved in the executive development team will feel ignored or disrespected because their views will not be taken into consideration. While integrative bargaining should be encouraged, the parents are less likely to be actively involved in the discussions because they are considered nonprofessionals. Lack of a transformational message encouraging employee and parent trust is a big challenge. It is only after the organization understands about individual membership in teams that it will be able to build group processes that are supportive in achieving the group goals. The group needs to understand that each group member has a role to play in ensuring achievement of the goals. It is only easy for team members to pursue team goals they help in devising and are allowed to contribute to their achievement.   

Part III: Retrospective Evaluation

The problems experienced at Woodson Foundation can be solved through a number of ways. The best strategies to apply in this case are through transformational leadership and development of a supportive culture. Transformational leadership involves active participation of all major stakeholders in the case.  The team requires membership from the Woodson Foundation management, the school staff/ teachers, school district representatives, parent participation, and students’ participation as well. This will ensure that each group presents the experienced problems and also helps in coming up with ways of solving them. While the school district is highly bureaucratic, the school management is interested in good results. In addition, the teachers need to explain why the high turnover and burnout rates, while the students should explain why the poor results and high crime rates. The parents would explain how they relate with the children at home and how they wish they were helped as well as the roles the school wished they played to change the behavior of their children. When the stakeholders are actively involved in proceedings of the group, they will feel encouraged to follow the laid down solutions to solve the issue. The second solution will be through having a supportive school culture. The school culture is so bureaucratic and this might be discouraging to the staff and students. It might be difficult for the staff, students, and parents to have their grievances reach the top management. The culture of the school should be changed so that grievances are easily aired and addressed before they advance into serious problems.    

Part IV: Reflection

            The best strategy for managing diversity issues for program leaders is through respecting diversity. Diversity is ensured when all stakeholders in the experienced problem are represented equally in coming up with the best solution. The best program leader would be the one who acknowledges and respects the views and suggestions raised by all involved parties. It is not logical in solving diversity issues to consider some people powerful and knowledgeable than others. The program leader should not only involve all affected parties in the discussions but also encourage them to actively participate. The leader should ensure that they are able to raise their views and be given time to support them. When coming up with the best solution, all raised views should be considered and the group members participate in criticizing each view based on its pros and cons.

 

Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive

 Deliver the Value: IKEA Case Study

 

 

Analysis of the Current Situation

IKEA is a company that is doing well in market share and sales. Operating 298 stores in 26 countries and reporting annual revenues of 27 billion euros is something to celebrate. All these can be attributed to the effective values and design philosophy that the organization founder established. The effective values employed by the company are being frugal, environmentally aware, democratic, and design oriented. These values have helped the organization succeed in the global market. Additionally, the company sells a range of products that enable it win a large market share since different customers with different needs have something to purchase. The Swedish experience of incorporating restaurants and several customer services is also a major strength that the company should be pleased with. It is also notable that customers play a major role in production and logistics and this makes them satisfied since they feel that they are valued and acknowledged. JIT inventory management reduces operations costs since the company does not have to incur costs of storing finished inventory. 

The major opportunity for the company is the issue of room for expansion. The company has not extended into all countries that it can have good business. A good example is in the BRC countries mainly China and India where it is thought that business is promising. However, the greatest weakness for the company is that of the fear of the company’s culture being unable to work in the targeted huge market. It is feared that the current business culture might not work well in India and China. The major threat for the company is that of competition since IKEA is not the only company dealing with furniture worldwide. There are other companies in other countries that might enjoy low production and distribution costs when compared to IKEA. The SWOT for the company is as in the table below:

 

Opportunities

·         Room for expansion

Threats

·         Competition

·         High production costs in other countries

Strengths

·         Effective values and design philosophy

·         Dealing in a great range of products

·         The Swedish experience

·         Incorporation of customers in production and logistics

·         Use of JIT inventory management approach 

Weaknesses

·         Inability for the current business culture to work in the new targeted countries

 

The Target Market

Operating in a range of globally sourced flat-packed furniture products as well as a range of related furnishings for the home, IKEA targets diversified range of customers. The company targets all types of customers who have the purchasing power and thus unable to afford the offered products.  Customers are not limited by proximity to the company premises since using the JIT inventory approach, customers are allowed to place orders online and have the products delivered to their homes 3-4 months later. The target market is not limited by parenthood or responsibilities of taking care of one’s children since the company offers a variety of customer services such as childcare meant to make the shopping process simpler. The customers are also encouraged to do shopping as they enjoy the restaurant services implying that the company also targets shopping as friends socialize and handle other business issues as they take a meal.

The Problem

IKEA has established a promising business opportunity of expanding to the BRC countries. However, the greatest challenge that poses the problem is that of fear of incapability of the applied business culture work in the new countries (Milne, 2013). The country has established that BRC countries will help the company reach its goal of increasing sales by 10% a year to 2020, thereby doubling annual sales revenues. The company culture has worked successfully and resulted to pleasing outcomes in other countries the company operates. However, the culture is not expected to have the same results in the BRC countries. The company is afraid that using a Swedish experience will reap the same results in the new countries. Nevertheless, it is not easy to wake up and change the culture since it has had good results previously and thus needs to be preserved. The issue is whether a new culture needs to be developed for the new countries and the old culture maintained in the countries it has promising results.

Alternative Solutions

In order to solve the experienced problem, IKEA has to come up with a number of possible solutions and choose on the best course of action. The alternative solutions in this case include developing a new culture only for the BRC countries, changing the entire business culture, and changing the host country to accept the current organization culture. These alternatives courses of action have different costs, disadvantages, and advantages that help in choosing the best option. Developing a new culture for the host country is expensive though not as expensive as changing the entire business culture. Changing the beliefs of the host country to accept the current culture might be the most expensive. Operating different cultures in the case of developing a new organization culture only for the BRC countries might be expensive in terms of operational costs. It will also be hard to transfer an employee from BRC countries to the other countries and expect him to understand the type of culture to work with. It is also notable that the company might try to change the notions of customers in the BRC countries to accept the current culture (Bremer, 2012). However, this might not necessarily bear the expected results. 

Recommended Course of Action

Considering the implementation costs, operational costs, and benefits of each of three identified courses of action, the best action would be to reform the current business culture. It is notable that the current organization culture has worked wonders in the countries the company operates and thus might be hard to discard. The company might even be scared of changing an organization culture that has ensured the company profits all through. Nonetheless, change of the organization culture is the best alternative. This should be done after adequate research in BRC countries to determine the organizational cultures employed by companies operating there. It is also worth noting that change of the culture does not mean complete overhaul but rather incorporation of additional aspects that will make the new culture apply in the BRC countries. This is because a complete overhaul of events might lead to an organization culture that will not be applicable in the current countries the company is doing business with. The implementation process would thus start only after the right culture is identified. The implementation process will start with identification of the right personnel for each role. The personnel involved in the implementation process should be clearly informed of their roles and supplied with adequate resources for the process. There should also be a monitoring team that monitors every step of the implementation process with corrective action taken in time (Bremer, 2012).  

 

 

References

http://www.ikea.com/ms/en_US/this-is-ikea/company-information/index.html

Milne, R. (2013, September 1). Ikea signals slower expansion. Financial Times.

Bremer, M. (2012).Organizational culture change: Unleashing your organization’s potential in circles of 10. London: On Demand Publishing, LLC-Create Space.

Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive

 

Case Study

Introduction

Change is very important in healthcare organizations. The organization structure that can be affected by change according to Rose (2009) include hierarchical structure, communication patterns, relationships, and existing coordination between departments and management levels. The change in the structure of an organization is a common change in the healthcare industry and it will be explored further in this essay. The example of change discussed in this case is that of incorporation of person centred nursing that requires change of the organization culture in order to effectively incorporate the change. This would involve changing the time dressing is done so as to improve the quality of health care offered.

Change in Organization Structure: Person Centred Practice

There are different areas that require change in the nursing practice in order to improve on quality of health care services. One of the nursing practices requiring change is the mode of practice in which the patients are put in the centre of their own treatment and care. This is because improving quality in the health care services offered by nurses requires active participation of the patients. Person-centred practice according to McCormack, Dewing &McCance (2011) “is treatment and care provided by health services that places the person at the centre of their own care and considers the needs of the older person’s carers”. This implies that person-cantered care is not only about the needs and interests of the patient but also those of the close family members and carers.  

Person-centred practice can be achieved through a number of ways as the nurse interacts and gets to know his patients better. Understanding the health and healthcare of the involved patients is very important. A nurse manager who demonstrates professionalism, respects self and others, and pays attention to the needs of the patients and their families is able to understand the needs of the populations he works with and help them prepare for any change (Weiner, Irwin, Trangenstein& Gordon, 2005). In this case, the nurse does not work solely but with the help of the patients and other people involved to improve their health and wellbeing. This way, the patients and their families are actively involved in their care.    

Person-centred practice is possible with effective communication. Effective communication is very important in nursing practice. It involves the passing of information between the nurse and the patient, the family members, and caregivers (Beardsley, Kimberlin&Tindall, 2013). Effective communication is very important for nurse managers since it ensures that they pass the intended message in a clear manner and the passed message is understood by all the people involved. The patient also feels that the people who matter in her life are not left out in the treatment process as the nurse manager communicates to them in a clear and understandable manner. The nurse manager is also able to maintain a healthy relationship with the patients and their family members through effective communication, which is vital in improving the wellbeing and health of the patients (Kourkouta&Papathanasiou, 2014). 

The Change Process

            Incorporation of a person-centred practice program in the healthcare organization involves change of the organization culture as employees including the management will be required to do things differently. This calls for high quality management in which the patients are given the first priority since the health of patients is of great importance in healthcare organizations (Forman, 2011). The hospital staff understands that the needs of the patients should be incorporated in the patient care offered in order to realize satisfaction. Patients have for long been taken for granted in most hospitals and other healthcare organizations in which they are regarded as passive participants in the treatment process. As noted by Rosenthal et al (2000), in most cases, patients are not consulted whenever a patient care practice is to be conducted. This makes some resist and fail to follow the orders given. While some patients fail to turn up for appointments, others do not take the drugs as prescribed and this worsens their situation. Weiner (2003) notes that with patients involved actively in the patient care process, they feel a part of the decisions made and this makes them follow all the guidelines given. 

            The health care organization should change the current culture of dressing the patients at 5.00am since this affects the quality of health care offered. Both the nurses and patients should be contacted to identify other better timelines when dressing can be done so that high quality care is offered. Since nurses are the ones carrying out the dressing task, they should be consulted so that they offer alternative periods when they can carry out the same task. However, in order for the change to ensure person-centered practiced is adhered to, the patients should be involved.  

Models and Tools Supporting Engagement and Collaboration for Practice Change

The best theory in this case is the transition theory by William Bridges, which explains how people can successfully undergo the change process. It is based on the knowledge that change is inevitable and thus nurses have to learn on how to do things better. They need to learn new ways to improve patient care. The model is effective because it does not focus on the change but on the transition process. This is view is supported by Duchscher (2009) that the transition process is required during the change process since a person has to transition from the state of affairs before the change to the new state of affairs after the change. Transition is in the nurse’s mind and therefore the mind has to be prepared to accept change.    

This model has three stages namely the ending, losing and letting go, the neutral zone, and the new beginning. This theory is important because it explains how people need to transition to align with the changing process. While change is external, a nurse can control and manage what is inside her to accept change (Beecroft, 2006). This theory fits the change process in the nursing field because successful transition during any change process is vital in the nursing practice. Nurses should learn to actively involve the patients in the treatment process, which might be different from what they are used to. They should learn to work closely with the patient’s family members so that the treatment process becomes more effective and improves the health of the patients, which is the major role of nurses (Cummings& Worley, 2014). They should also learn the important needs and values that patients wish were considered in the treatment process.

Conclusion

There are different areas that require change in the nursing practice in order to improve on quality of health care services. One of the nursing practices requiring change is the mode of practice in which the patients are put in the centre of their own treatment and care. This is because improving quality in the health care services offered by nurses requires active participation of the patients. Change is mandatory and thus people should be prepared for it. As a result, nurses should be encouraged by a supportive organization culture that will ensure that are adequately informed of the necessity of the change and the benefits it will bring.

 

 

 

References

Beardsley, R. S., Kimberlin, C. L., &Tindall, W. N. (2013).Communication skills in pharmacy practice: A practical guide for students and practitioners. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Beecroft, P. C. et al. (2006). New graduate nurses’ perceptions of mentoring: Six-year programme evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nursing,55(6), 736-747

Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014).Organization development and change. New York: Cengage Learning.

Duchscher, J. E. B. (2009). Transition shock: The initial stage of role adaptation for newly graduated Registered Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(5), 1103-1113.

Forman, H. (2011). Nursing leadership for patient-centered care: Authenticity, presence, intuition, expertise. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.

Kourkouta, L., &Papathanasiou, I. V. (2014). Communication in nursing practice.Mater Sociomed., 26(1), 65-67.

McCormack, B., Dewing, J., &McCance, T., (2011). Developing person-centred care: Addressing contextual challenges through practice development. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(2), Manuscript 3.

Rose, R. G. (2009). New building, new expectations: The influence of structural change on organizational culture. London: ProQuest.

Rosenthal, C. J., Marshall, V. W., Macpherson, A. S., & French, S. E. (2000).Nurses, patients and families.Londres: Croom Helm.

Weiner, E., Irwin, M., Trangenstein, P., & Gordon, J. (2005).Emergency preparedness curriculum in nursing schools in the United States.Nursing Education Perspectives, 26(6), 334-339.

Weiner, I. B. (2003).Handbook of psychology: 9. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.