Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive

Create the Value Marketing Analysis: Daylesford Organic farm

 

Brief Description of the Daylesford Organic Farm Concept

The organic farm concept at Daylesford presents all the products provided in the retail shop to be organic and enticing. Everyone visiting the retail shop has something to order.  The retail shop is committed to simple passion for actual food. This is meant to ensure that customers visiting the retail center are not only having a variety of products that they should choose from but also confuse them on the best to choose. This way, a customer cannot get out of the retail shop without everything required for everyone. Products offered in the retail center are arranged in such a manner that they are attracting and encourage customers to be loyal to the shop. It is also notable that the center offers products that are better for animals, for humans, and for the environment. Even though customers have to queue before they are served as a result of the enormous numbers of customers visiting the retail shop, they are not bored. They have so much to admire on the waiting lines ranging from kitchen utensils, bath products, and enticing foods (Daylesford, 2014).

The new retail shop to be opened should follow the example set by Daylesford in order to succeed. Customers should be attracted to the new store as a result of originality of the products as well as the manner in which they are arranged in the retail center. Customers should thus find it easy to locate the products of choice and even be attracted to buy other products in the store that they find attractive. Operating a place where people can eat from or purchase food products requires that the customers are encouraged to eat healthily. This implies that we should provide organic food products in the new retail shop to ensure that no health issues are reported as a result of our products. 

 

 

Potential Market Segment

            The new retail store will target all types of customers in theNew England region of United States. This will include the six states in the region namely Maine, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Further, the target market will include low, medium, and high income people in the locality. This will be ensured through provision of different types of products so that there is something for everyone who visits the store. Even though there will be low-priced products to be afforded by the low income earners in the locality, this does not mean that quality will be compromised. It is better to have small packages for the low income earners rather than having low quality products. This region comprises of an area of 71,991.8 sq mi (United States, 2014).

            With then region being densely populated, it incorporates both urban and rural areas. The rural areas, which are the majority are known for improving the economy of the country. This is through supplying natural resources to the industrial companies in the urban areas. They also export food products such as fish, cranberries, maple syrup, and Maine potatoes. This is an indication that raw materials (supply of food products) to the new retail shop are not a problem. The climate in the region is varied with Maine, western Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire having a humid continental climate. This indicates that here there are long winters and heavy snow. In eastern and central Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, the warm/hot summers, short winters, and less snowfall. In the coastal and southern Connecticut, there is a frost free region and sunnier winters(United States, 2014).

            Additionally, the targeted region had an estimated population of 14,618,806 in 2013 with Massachusetts being the most populous and Vermont the least populous. In a survey done between 2006 and 2008, it was estimated that 48.7% of the people in the region were male and the rest, 51.3% were females. Further, around 22.4% were below 18 years old and 13.5% were beyond 65 years. Majority of the families have a size of 5 including the children the parents. It is also notable that most of the aged people are married. The major ancestries in the region are British Isles at 40%, Irish at 21.1%, French at 15.3%, Italian at 14.4%, English at 13.7%, German at 8.2%, Polish at 5.6%, Portuguese at 3.5%, Scottish at 3.1%, Scotch-Irish at 2.1%, and Russian at 1.9%. As a result of the industrial development incorporated with agriculture in the region, most families have high income of between $20,000 and $30,000 per annum(United States, 2014). 

Employment rate in the region is fairly high since very few people are unemployed. By 2014 April, New England had an unemployment rate of 6.1%, Connecticut 6.9%, Maine 5.9%, Massachusetts 6.0%, New Hampshire 4.4%, Rhode Island 8.3% and Vermont at 3.3%.  There are several education institutions in the region ensuring that everyone goes to school. Most people are employed in the agricultural and energy industries, in the media, sports, and their own farms. Catholic was the major religion in 1990 at 50%. Since unemployment rate is low in the region, most people are working class and thus with high level of income. The social activities are sports, music, and traditional knitting among others(United States, 2014). Most people in the region are ambitious as they get to employment to improve their lives. They are heavy users of the introduced products in the new retail shop, are informed and interested in it thus intending to buy, and are enthusiastic that it will improve their health lives. 

Value Proposition

            Most of the products offered in the new retail shop are fresh and organic products from the agricultural firms in the region. These are products that people are used to and only require a little reorganization and rearrangement in the store that they become attractive to the eyes of the customers. Customers will get great value for their money since they will get the quality they desire in their purchases or even a quality much higher. The offered products will be of high quality, priced reasonably, in all sizes of packages, and offered to the customers by well-trained sale personnel. The emotional benefits of the products include the assurance that customers will have improved health, can sit and share with friends/ family members, and are being provided with agricultural products from their own agricultural farms. Apart of high quality products, the self-expressive benefits in the products are the well-arranged shelves from which the customers can make purchase choices, delicious meals served with healthy accompaniments, and provision of products they can associate with (Osterwalder,Pigneur,Bernarda&Smith, 2014).

Conclusion

The new retail shop is expected to improve sales for the mother company because it will offer products that customers are used to, ensure customers of improved health, offer high quality products, and reasonably price the products. In order to ensure that all customers in the region are targeted, the store will package its products in different sizes. In addition, the store will operate in a large sitting and waiting area so that customers are not limited from eating from the store as a result of limited space. The waiting area for service will be organized in such a manner that customers can do a bit of window shopping, which will be beneficial to the store since some will end up buying the products of interest before leaving the center.

 

 

References

Daylesford.(2014). Daylesford organic farm Gloucestershire.Retrieved from http://daylesford.com/.

Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y.,Bernarda, G., & Smith.A. (2014).Value proposition design: How to make stuff people want.New York: John Wiley.

United States. (2014). The world factbook 2013-14. Washington, D.C: Central Intelligence Agency.

 

 

Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive

Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) for Starbucks

Executive Summary

Starbucks Corporation is the leader in the coffee business after Costa Coffee of the United Kingdom. The firm was founded in 1971 in Seattle, Washington but it has grown to invest in sixty-eight countries across the world. In addition, the firm promises clients the best coffee that they can ever find in the market. In essence, the firm embraces integrated marketing communication to reach as many customers as possible. Using both traditional and modern marketing methods, the firm has been able to beat the competition because the target customers have access to any information related to the firm’s products. Notably, technological advances across the world have allowed many people to have access to internet. Consequently, Starbucks uses the social media to market its products and answer clients’ queries in real time thus increasing customer loyalty.

 

 

Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) for Starbucks

Introduction

Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) refers to applying unchanging brand messaging to the target customers via both traditional and modern marketing channels while using diverse promotional techniques to give each other strength. The world of business is increasingly becoming competitive which means that managers have no choice other than ensuring that they develop marketing strategies that would put them ahead of the competition. Notably, Starbucks Corporation otherwise known as Starbucks Coffee is a market leader in the world ahead of Costa Coffee, which is based in the United Kingdom. Starbucks was founded in Seattle, the United States on 30 March 1971 but it has since grown to open thousands of branches across the world. Innately, the organization has in excess of 21,160 stores spread in more than sixty-three countries around the globe. Starbucks has seven hundred and ninety three stores in the United Kingdom, 1,170 in Japan, 1,451 in Canada, 1,570 in China and 12,067 in the US. Essentially, Starbucks targets customers from all lifestyles irrespective of their religion, race, ethnicity or color of skin.

In essence, by the end of November 2014, Starbucks had its presence in sixty-eight countries, which are listed below according to their geographical locations

Africa

North America

Oceania

South America

Asia

Europe

Egypt

Aruba

New Zealand

Peru

Vietnam

Monaco - La Condamine

South Africa

Bahamas

Australia

Colombia

UAE

UK

Morocco

Canada

 

Chile

Thailand

Switzerland

 

Curaçao

 

Brazil

Taiwan

Sweden

 

Costa Rica

 

Bolivia

Sri Lanka

Spain

 

El Salvador

 

Argentina

South Korea

Russia

 

Guatemala

 

 

Singapore

Romania

 

Mexico

 

 

Saudi Arabia

Portugal

 

Puerto Rico

 

 

Qatar

Poland

 

US

 

 

Philippines

Turkey

 

 

 

 

Oman

Norway

 

 

 

 

Malaysia

The Netherlands

 

 

 

 

Macau

Isle of Wight

 

 

 

 

Lebanon

Ireland

 

 

 

 

Kuwait

Hungary

 

 

 

 

Jordan

Guernsey

 

 

 

 

Japan

Greece

 

 

 

 

Indonesia

Germany

 

 

 

 

India

France

 

 

 

 

Hong Kong

Finland

 

 

 

 

China

Denmark

 

 

 

 

Brunei

Czech Republic

 

 

 

 

Bahrain

Cyprus

 

 

 

 

 

Bulgaria

 

 

 

 

 

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

Austria

 

Intrinsically, Starbucks has not changed its brand name over all the years since its inception. Consequently, majority of the firm’s loyal customers are always happy to be associated with the brand because it guarantees top quality coffee sourced from the best across the world. In essence, any organization cannot lie low after realizing that it is the market leader in any business, which means that Starbucks’ management has been on the forefront to ensure that their clients understand the firm’s products. Diversification of products is a critical antidote that it uses to ensure that clients have a wide range of products to choose. Ideally, its products include snacks, pastries, full-leaf-teas, micro-ground instant coffee and whole-bean coffee. In addition, majority of its stores offer pre-packaged foods, cold and hot sandwiches as well tumblers and mugs. Moreover, stores offering Starbucks Evenings serve appetizers, beers and wines. Furthermore, the organization runs a subsidiary by the name of Hear Music, which markets film, music and books. At the same time, most of the products are seasonal while others are specifically meant for chosen stores according to their locations. Customers form the backbone of any organization’s success and sustainability, which means that they need to understand what, is happening in the firm of their choice. However, without IMC, it would be impossible to make organization’s products to the target market. Every organization requires a workable IMC strategy that would allow clients to know the latest products and services from the company.

IMC Objectives

The organization embraces IMC to ensure that its products reach the target market in real time. For example from the year 1987 to 2007, the organization was opening an average of two new stores every day. Although the organization was making enormous profits in the 1980s, its expansion to British Columbia and Midwest resulted in significant losses. The management realized that investing in new areas without having proven communication strategies was the main problem. Consequently, the firm invested in California in 1991 after ensuring that its brand had become trendy. IMC allows any organization to realize the need to bring its products closer to the people. As a result, Starbucks opened its first outlet outside US or Canada in 1991 in Tokyo, Japan. Going forward, the firm has about a third of its stores based outside US. Despite the fact that the organization planned to open more than nine hundred stores outside US, the venture led to the closure of three hundred stores in its native country.

These are Starbucks’ IMC Objectives

  • Bring the products closer to the target market
  • Stick to the old brand name “Starbucks”
  • Embrace both traditional and internet marketing to reach the target customer
  • Invest in as many countries as possible to fight competition
  • Prove that the organization offers the best and high quality coffee one could get
  • Higher the best personnel for promoting their products
  • Adhere to cultural differences wherever the organization invests
  • Market analysis

Communications Strategy Plans

For any organization to remain competitive in any business, the management must embrace communication strategy plans that best suit the target customers’ needs. Technological advances and globalization have changed traditional marketing methods as multinationals aspire to reach the highest number of customers within the shortest time possible. However, old global firms have not done away with the traditional marketing methods because some clients do not have access to newest communication methods such as internet. Since Starbucks Corporation has stores in various countries across the world it must adhere to the politics of the country it ventures. Some of the countries such as Mexico and China have different political climates when compared to that of the United States.

Ideally, the organization collaborated with Conservation International to help save the environment for health coffee production in Mexico in order to increase the organization’s acceptance in the society. Ideally, Starbuck did not want to go against Mexican political issues by dealing directly with coffee farmers for the Mexican government could have felt as if it were isolated (Renard, 2010). Although, the organization is non-political, it has faced several protests in countries such as Beirut, Dubai and Cairo (Roark, 2014). In addition, Gaza activists urge people to boycott the organization because they feel that it supports Israeli militarists. Innately, the organization focuses on abiding to laws and regulations for any community that they serve. Notably, guns are allowed in the United States but in countries where they are illegal, Starbucks does not allow them in its stores. By adhering to political stances in any country, Starbucks has been able to grow its business in countries that differ with US in majority of their instances. Essentially, Starbucks does not support any political activists in any country; thus, reducing chances of conflicts between the firm and the government. Intrinsically, Starbucks respects political stability, tariffs, trade restrictions, environmental laws, labor laws and tax policy. The organization employs only authorized people in all countries. Moreover, it pays taxes according to the regulations (Jaffee, 2007). Ideally, its operations are environmentally safe which increases customer loyalty; thus, increasing its revenues.

            Starbucks understands that inflation rates, exchange rates, interest rates and economic growth are vital to its success. At the same time, IMC enables the firm to communicate effectively with both staffers and suppliers thus increasing client loyalty; hence increasing the company’s turnover. Essentially, interest rates affect an organization’s cost of capital because they dictate the amount of resources that an organization has. Since it has invested in several countries, it studies the country’s interest rates before opening a store in the nation. On the other hand, Starbucks outsources only the best coffee from any part of the world. Consequently, exchanges rates determine the cost of any imported or exported service or goods. At the same time, the cost of its products are determined by the amount spend on acquiring raw materials. Furthermore, clients are happy when they know that the products are offered at the best price in the market. Starbucks does not overcharge its customers based on the distance from the source of raw materials (Roark, 2014). 

            Communication would be in vain especially when the management does not value cultural beliefs for they are different in any given community. The firm offers healthy beverages to the communities because it wants to improve their health. Starbucks works on meeting client needs, which are determined by social trends. In young populations, the management employs young people in order to increase the number of customers because they feel more attached to the workers. For example, in China majority of the managers in the organization’s stores are young because most of the clients are youthful. On the contrary, majority of US clients are older hence, the management employs older people in its stores (Roark, 2014).

            Primarily, over the years people have been embracing technology in most of their activities. The management uses automated coffee dispensers in some its stores where a customer does not need an employee to serve him or her. Ultimately, this goes a long way in reducing costs for the organization’s service delivery. In addition, the cost of the firm’s products goes down hence increasing sales and revenue for the organization. The machines can serve two hundred and eighty drink combinations, which offers diversity to the consumers. In addition, they have touch screens and consumers could play a game as they await their order, which provides customers with recreational facility; therefore, increasing customer satisfaction. Intrinsically, the firm gives customers free internet access through their Wi-Fi connections in several stores in Austria, Switzerland and Germany (Melissa, 2008).

            The organization embraces environmentally safe practices because it understands that the environment must be protected at all times. Starbucks serves its clients the best quality coffee across all its stores in the world. In addition, the firm ventures in saving natural lands for coffee growing. It has invested heavily in Mexican coffee growing areas to maintain high quality coffee beans (Melissa, 2008).

            According to IMC regulations for most multinational organizations, they must adhere to the laws of the countries. Laws dealing with areas such as safety, health, employment, anti-trust, consumer and discrimination are all important for Starbucks’ success. The firm respects court decisions in addition to using legal means to protect infringing on its properties such as the logo. It has been involved in several court cases in countries such as China where it sued Xingbake in Shanghai for logo infringement. Moreover, the management does not discuss any matters, which are before the courts (Tice, 2014).

            In addition to providing high quality coffee to its customers, Starbucks has been able to increase its client reach through human connections. Ideally, “Embracing the position as product quality leader and industry segment leader, Starbucks does not aggressively market the company through traditional means but instead focuses almost entirely on high-level marketing and branding of word-of-mouth and key alliances and partnerships” (Lingley, 2009, p. 4). These alliances have helped Starbucks in investing in several countries in the world. The firm entered into an alliance with NAACP, to increase customer share in the coffee business. Starbucks gave donations to NAACP to promote events for marketing its products (Anonymous, 2006). In addition, it is in partnership with several other organizations such as Barnes and Noble bookstores, PepsiCo, United Airlines, Kraft foods among others. The partnerships are ideal for increasing customer awareness on the firm’s products through distribution of mugs bearing the Starbucks’ logo. In addition, the partners increase accessibility for the organization’s products and services across the globe.

            In essence, as a market leader in the coffee business, Starbucks has invested in several states across the world since its inception in 1971. Analysis on the firms activities reveal that the firm adheres to genuine practices as it tries to increase customer share. Starbucks respects laws and politics for countries which it has interests. In addition, the organization respects the environment by saving natural lands for growing coffee. Moreover, the firm has collaborated with several organizations as it tries to reach as many clients as possible. These partnerships take the organization’s products closer to the people thus ensuring client loyalty and increased sales. Consequently, the organization does not use traditional marketing methods because they have failed in many other firms.

  • Traditional Media

Starbucks understands the need to stick to traditional marketing techniques, which involve radio, television and billboards. Consequently, the management ensures that it has huge and colorful billboards in any major entry point in a country that the organization has interests. Moreover, the organization places the same billboards in major highways of these states. Notably, most of the billboards are eye-catching which means that any passerby would be interested in understanding what the firm has in offer. Most of the adverts portray customers enjoying the wide variety of products offered by the firm.

On the other hand, radio offers an easy access to many clients especially those who do not have access to Internet. The commercials are easy to understand because the narrators ensure that they have a connection with the target market by revealing the excellent taste that the products offer. At the same time, Starbucks uses television to promote its products across a wide range of clients irrespective of their locations. The adverts on TV are different video clips collected from several stores showing clients enjoying their favorite products from the company. Furthermore, the ads reveal that the products are healthy and as a result, anyone could use them at all times. Healthy eating is a major medical problem affecting very many people across the globe especially in Europe and the United States. Consequently, Starbucks has taken advantage of this revelation to market its products by showing physically fit clients yet enjoying the firm’s products regularly.

  • Internet

Since its incorporation in 1971, Starbucks Corporation has been providing healthy drinks to its clients. With innovation of social media, the organization has invested enough resources to create accounts on both twitter and Facebook with real people answering to clients’ questions. In addition, the organization posts enough tweets on its twitter account to update clients on any new products and services in the market. The posts are interesting especially because some of them are created like jokes thus drawing readers’ attention. On the other hand, according to Pozin (2014), the management of Starbucks Corporation understands the importance of real time communication with its clients. Since most people across the world have access to the internet, social media, especially Facebook and twitter provides an ideal platform for gathering information.

Facebook and twitter are ideal for the organization because they have millions of subscribers across the world. Consequently, the organization has been growing its client base through use of the social media sites (PR Newswire, 2014). In essence, Starbucks Corporation has a team that responds to clients’ questions promptly on anything about their services. Consequently, client satisfaction has been on the rise while the organization is more efficient. The organization subscription to twitter and Facebook is ideal for its operations because of the high number of subscribers on the two across the world.

However, Starbucks Corporation needs to increase more client responses and comments on the sites because it cannot rely on what the staff tells the clients. Ideally, majority of clients trust more what other customers have to say as opposed to responses from the staff. In addition, it should increase the number of real people on the sites to reduce communication time between staff and passengers. Moreover, the number of highlights on changes in flights should be increased because clients have to know what is happening in the market at all times. At the same time, Nestle should increase the number of photos of its products detailing their nutritious value. Ideally, clients would be happy to understand why Starbucks Corporation foods are ideal for the whole family. At the same time, the organization needs to invest in other social media networks such as LinkedIn and Instagram because they have followers across the world.

  • Direct Marketing

Intrinsically, the management of Starbucks Corporation has realized the importance of direct marketing for it ensures that the firm reaches clients on the streets. Ideally, such customers act as the firm’s advocates by referring their friends and relatives to the company’s stores. Accordingly, the firm realizes increased sales albeit spending lesser resources in its quest to introduce new products and services that the corporation has to offer. Word of mouth has proved to be an essential marketing tool for Starbucks because their friends bring majority of new clients to their stores for the first time. Innately, this reduces marketing expenses, which are associated with other firms in the same business. Starbucks enters into partnerships with other established outlets in the destination country. For example, in 2013, “The first Starbucks inside Danish Supermarket opened in August 2013 in the department stores Salling in Aalborg and Aarhus” (Lingley, 2009, p. 4). Outstandingly, the firm saved marketing resources for it placed its products in an outlet that the target market trusts. 

  • Sales Promotion

Although Starbucks is a well renowned organization in the coffee business, the management ensures that it embraces sales promotion tactics in its IMC strategies. For example, “In 2003, after struggling with fierce local competition, Starbucks closed all six of its locations in Israel, citing "on-going operational challenges" and a "difficult business environment” (Anonymous, 2006). The management realized that the political situation in Israel could not allow promotional gigs to happen in the society. The organization has entered into partnerships with other firms where it promotes its products at a lower cost. Essentially, the firm has branded coffee mugs in major airline companies in the United States. Importantly, the mugs draw clients’ attention to the firm’s products; whereas the firm has promoters based at major streets to beat the competition. They offer free samples to clients in order to encourage them to be taking their beverages. Some of the competitors create advertise that show that the company’s products are unhealthy but Starbucks counters this negativity by offering proving that its products are the best through sales promotion whereby clients interact with employees on one-to-one basis. Most importantly, clients are always happy when they have a chance to talk directly to employees for they have all their questions answered thus reducing any doubts that the clients could have had on the products.   It is worth noting that Starbucks adheres to all legalities before holding any sales promotions according to the country’s laws; therefore reducing chances of legal suits that could tarnish the brands name among the people.

  • Public Relations (PR)

Intrinsically, Starbucks is a multinational organization, which means that it has employees and clients from different cultural backgrounds. Consequently, the management ensures that its PR is in a position to meet the needs of all the people that its serves. Although each store acts as an autonomous entity, it ensures that the clients’ needs are met always by employing workers who rhyme with their needs. For example, in China, the organization employs young managers because most of the customers are middle-aged persons. On the other hand, in the United States majority of the employees are older because the target market is comprised of older people. As a result, the organization manages to serve client’s interests despite their cultural beliefs and ideals. Moreover, all employees are treated equally by promoting the best performers in addition to offering other incentives that ensure that the firm remains competitive. The management does not sit back to enjoy its dominance in the market because it understands that their competitors are watching closely for any chances to overtake the firm. The CEO, Howard Schultz, “has talked about making sure growth does not dilute the company's culture and the common goal of the company's leadership to act like a small company” (Lingley, 2009, p. 5). In essence, the organization does not shy away from replacing any employee who does not perform as per the expectations. For instance, in 2008, Jim Donald was replaced as the CEO after sales went down. His successor Schultz promised to work towards restoring the “distinctive Starbucks experience” because he does not want customers to feel that they can get the same services from the competition. Innately, the prices of raw materials have been changing over the years but the management ensures that it sources its coffee beans from reputable suppliers who do not overcharge them; thus offering customers the best coffee at a reasonable price. Restructuring is an ideal process for any organization that aspires to remain competitive in business and as a result, Starbucks changes employees in any region that sales are going down. In addition, the organization obeys the rule of law by reporting any cases of infringement to their property rights by their competitors.

Conclusion

As a market leader in the coffee business, Starbucks uses IMC to ensure sustainability. Communication is very important for the success of any organization and as a result, Starbucks has embraced all marketing methods to ensure that its products are well known by the target market. Notably, producing a new product and failing to advertise it is equivalent to blinking in the darkness because no one would notice it. Consequently, Starbucks invests resources in creating product awareness to the target market because this increases sales and guarantees sustainability. Although the firm faces stiff competition from firms such as Xingbake and Costa Coffee, it has been able to withstand the challenges by providing the best high quality coffee sourced from natural coffee growing areas. In addition, the firm does not overcharge for its products despite the fact that they are unique. Innately, most people across the globe have access to internet, which shows why the firm uses the social media in marketing its products. Notably, the social media is cheap and reaches a very large number of people within the shortest time possible. On the other hand, Starbucks uses traditional marketing techniques such as radio, word of mouth, television and sales promotions to increase its market share across the world. Consequently, the firm has been growing rapidly and expanding its services since its incorporation in 1971. The CEO is determined to ensure that the competition cannot match the services that Starbucks offers.

 

 

 

References

Anonymous. (2006). Starbucks commits $2.5 million over five years to NAACP; strategic alliance affirms Starbucks commitment to diverse organizations: Business Wire. Retrieved 24 Oct. 2014 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2006_May_26/ai_n26878115/

Jaffee, D. (2007). Brewing Justice: Fair Trade Coffee, Sustainability and Survival. California: University of California Press.

Lingley, R. (2009). "Marketing Strategy and Alliances Analysis of Starbucks Corporation." Faculty Publications and Presentations: Paper 10:1-10.

Melissa, A. (2008). "Starbucks co-founder talks about early days, launching Redhook and Seattle Weekly, too.” Business and Technology.

Pozin, I. (2014). "Forbes Magazine." 20 Companies You Should Be Following On Social Media. Retrieved 13 Nov. from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ilyapozin/2014/03/06/20-companies-you-should-be-following-on-social-media/

PR Newswire. (2014). Nestlé’s Effectiveness of Digital and Social Media Marketing Strategies and Innovations. Retrieved 13 Nov. 2014 from http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/nestles-effectiveness-of-digital-and-social-media-marketing-strategies-and-innovations-273846691.html

Renard, M. (2010). "In the Name of Conservation: CAFE Practices and Fair Trade in Mexico". Journal of Business Ethics, 92: 287–299.

Roark, M. (2014). "Payment Systems, Consumer Tragedy and Ineffective Remedies". St. Johns Law Review, 86: 21-26.

Tice, C. (2014). "Starbucks still seeking a rhythm for Circadia". Puget Sound Business Journal, 2(4): 23-34.